Popular Gemstones & Jewels
List of Popular Gemstones, Jewels, Diamonds & Minerals
Gemstones are commonly used in make jewelry and artefacts but also in industry. Popular gemstones are also used for health and well being including feng shui, crystal healing and related new age therapies. What’s your birthstone?
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|Gemstone||Mineral type||Source regions||Chemical formula||Mohs hardness||Natural color/s||Birthstone||Popular gemstones uses and trivia|
|Agate||Quartz||Brazil, Uruguay.||SiO2||6.5 – 7||Brown (in bands)||Agate is a rock consisting of chalcedony and microgranular quartz. Historically used for hardstone carvings e.g. handles, seals, stone inlay etc. Agates are also popular gemstones. Agate crystals are used for protection.|
|Amethyst||Quartz||USA, Urals, India and Namibia.||SiO2||7||Violet.||February.||Amethyst is a violet variety of quartz said to prevent drunkenness. Amethysts are semi-precious gemstones used in jewelry. Popular healing crystal.|
|Beryl||Beryllium, Cyclosilicate||Brazil, Uruguay, Urals and Alps.||Be3Al2(SiO3)6||7.5 – 8||Dark blue.||March.||Beryl is aka Aquamarine or Maxixe (from Madagascar) and is one of the popular gemstones. Beryl is the crystal of courage in the throat Chakra.|
|Diamond💎||Carbon||South Africa, Congo, Angola and Australia.||C||10||Colorless, yellowish.||April.||💎Diamonds are precious and popular gemstones traditionally used in engagement rings and “Diamonds are a girls best friend”. Diamonds are used in industrial drilling and cutting tools.|
|Garnet||Nesosilicate||Slovakia, Czech Republic and the European Alps. State gemstone for Connecticut, USA.||X3Y2(SiO4)3||6.5 -7.5||Red shades most common but all colors (blue is rare).||January.||Garnets are popular gemstones. Garnets sand is a good abrasive and for water filtration. Red garnets are associated with the thyroid and spleen.|
|Carnelian||Chalcedony Silica||India, North Africa, Japan and Australia.||SiO2||6 – 7||Reddish, yellowish.||Carnelian is a mineral and popular semi-precious gemstone, often carved into artistic figurines. In feng shui Carnelian is energizing and used for grounding.|
|Lapis lazuli||Lazurite / pyrite / calcite||Russia, Afghanistan, Burma and Chile.||(Na,Ca) 8(AlSiO4) 6(S,SO4,Cl)1-2||5 -5.5||Blue and white.||Lapis lazuli is a deep-blue metamorphic rock used as a semi-precious gemstone in jewelry or sculpted into artistic figurines and frescoes.|
|Malachite||Copper carbonate||Australia, Russia, Zaire, Chile, Congo and Zimbabwe.||Cu2CO3(OH)2||3.5 – 4||Black green, light green.||Malachite is a precious ore. Malachite gemstones are used in jewelry. In feng shui malachite can be used to energize stagnant spaces.|
|Obsidian||Volcanic rock glass||Italy, Aegean, Turkey and Iceland.||Mostly SiO2 with around 25% MgO and Fe3O4||5 – 6||Glossy black.||Precious stones and stone figurines. In feng shui black obsidian draws in negative energy so should be regularly cleansed. Should be used with caution in crystal healing because of it’s power.|
|Opal||Hydrated silica||Australia.||SiO2·nH2O||6 – 7||gray, green.||October.||Opal is a non-crystalline form of silica classed as a mineraloid. A popular gemstone which can be found in most colors, black opals are the rarest.|
|Pearl||Mineral||Worldwide including the Persian Gulf, South Pacific, Gulf of Mannar, California, Gulf of Mexico. Pacific coast of Mexico, Europe, Japan and Australia.||CaCO3||2.5 – 4.5||white, pink, cream.||June.||Pearls are carbonate minerals formed from organic material in shelled molluscs. Gemstone pearls are iridescent like mother of pearl, white and black are the most popular gemstones but can be Champagne, pink, blue, green and purple (rare).|
|Peridot||Olivine, Silicate||USA, Australia, China, Kenya, Tanzania, South Africa, Norway, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Brazil, Mexico, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and in meteorites.||(Mg, Fe)2SiO4||6 – 7||Olive green.||August.||Peridot, aka Chrysolite, is a silicate mineral which is naturally olive-green but iron allows yellow through to Emerald hues – for which it is often mistaken.|
|Rose quartz||Quartz||Brazil, Madagascar, USA and the Ural’s.||SiO2||7||Maroon.||Gemstones, artistic figurines. Love stone in crystal meanings.|
|Ruby||Corundum / aluminum oxide||Thailand, Myanmar (Burma) and Sri Lanka.||Al2O3:Cr||9||Red||July.||Precious stones, sandpaper, healing crystal to recharge your energy levels.|
|Sapphire||Corundum / aluminum oxide||Thailand, Myanmar (Burma), Sri Lanka and Australia.||Al2O3||9||Cornflower blue.||September.||Gemstones, LEDs, semiconductor lasers. Used in meditation for dream fulfillment and prosperity.|
|Emerald||Beryl||South Africa, Colombia and Brazil.||Be3Al2(SiO3)6||7.5 – 8||Grass green.||May.||Valuable gemstone. Crystal of romance.|
|Sugilite||Cyclosilicate||South Africa, Australia, Italy, Japan, India and Canada.||KNa2(Fe,Mn,Al)2 Li3Si12O30||5.5 – 6.5||Violet, pink, purple.||Sugilite is a rare translucent gemstone. Named after Ken-ichi Sugi, a Japanese petrologist who described it in 1944.|
|Tiger’s eye||Quartz, Silica||South Africa and Australia.||SiO2||5.5 – 6||Golden to red-brown.||Tiger’s eye gemstones have a silky lustre. Stone of protection.|
|Topaz||Silicates||All continents, Brazil is a large producer. Topaz is state gemstone of Utah and blue Topaz is state gemstone of Texas, USA.||Al2SiO4(F,OH)2||8||Golden brown to yellow.||November.||Topaz is a silicate mineral found from opaque to transparent. Impurities result in many colors, pink is rare. Topaz is a symbol of friendship. Balancing and calming stone.|
|Turquoise||Phosphate||China, Afghanistan, USA, Mexico, Chile, Australia and Europe.||CuAl6 (PO4) 4(OH) 8·4H2O||5 – 6||Mottled green to blue.||December.||Turquoise is an opaque mineral and popular gemstone and ornamental stone. Stone of protection. Used in feng shui to attract wealth and to improve health and well-being.|
|Tourmaline||Group of minerals||Pakistan, Afghanistan and Namibia.||(Ca,K,Na,) (Al,Fe,Li,Mg,Mn) 3(Al,Cr, Fe,V) 6(BO3) 3(Si,Al,B) 6O18(OH,F)4||7 – 7.5||Most commonly black, but all colors.||Tourmaline is a semi-precious gemstone used for jewelry and trophies. Can be bi-colored or tri-colored and neon green or electric blue. Used to detox in crystal healing.|
|Silicates||Thailand, Vietnam, Sri Lanka and Australia.||ZrSiO4||7.5||Colorless to brown, green and blue.||Zircon belongs to the Nesosilicates mineral group. Colorless Zircon gemstones can be used as diamond simulants. Stone of virtue.|
Notes About Popular Gemstones Notes: Mohs scale of mineral hardness is used to compare the scratch resistance of materials. The Mohs hardness scale ranges from 1 (Talc) to 10 (Diamond).
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- Popular gemstones list compiled by Robert Junker, last updated 09 Mar 2020.
- Spotted a mistake? Do you have other interesting information about popular gemstones? Please add your comments below so we can improve this list…