Historical Battles ⚔️🎖️
Historical Battles Timeline ⚔️ Famous Battles in History 🎖️
This chronological list of historical battles covers all the important military engagements in recorded history.
- ADDucation’s Historical Battles list was originally compiled by Robert Junker and last updated .
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|Battle of Marathon||🇬🇷 Greece||490 BC||Athenians and Plataeans.||Attackers||Persian invaders.|
|Battle of Issus||🇹🇷 Turkey||333 BC||Macedonians under Alexander the Great.||Attackers||Persian minions under the command of Darius III.|
|Battle of Cannae||🇮🇹 Italy, Apulia||216 BC||40,000 Carthaginians (†8000) under Hannibal.||Attackers||80,000 Romans († 70,000) under Lucius Paullus.|
|Battle of Teutoburg Forest||🇩🇪 Germany, Lower Saxony||9 AD||Germans under Arminius.||Attackers||3 Roman legions under Varus (Varus Battle).|
|2nd Battle of Lechfeld||🇩🇪 Germany, Bavaria||955||Hungarian troops attacked under Bulcsú.||Defenders||Saxony / Franconia / Bavaria under Otto I. / Red Konrad.|
|Battle of Hastings||🏴 England, East Sussex||1066||9000 Normans under Duke William II attacked.||Attackers||10,000 Anglo-Saxons under King Harold II.|
|Battle of Kosovo||🇽🇰 Kosovo Polje||1389||An estimated 20,000 Christian Serbs and Bosnians, led by Prince Lazar and Vuk Brankovic, attacked the Turks.||Defenders||35,000 Turks (Ottoman Empire) under Sultan Murad I, Sultan Bayezid I and Yakub.|
|Battle of Grunwald||🇵🇱 Poland, Masuria||1410||27,000 German troops, under Grand Master Jungingen, attacked.||Defenders||39,000 Poles and Lithuanians under Władysław II Jagiello.|
|Siege of Orléans||🇫🇷 France||1428/29||The French, under Joan of Arc, attacked the Burgundians and English.||Attackers||English and Burgundians under the Earl of Salisbury.|
|Battle of Constantinople (Istanbul)||🇹🇷 Turkey||1453||The Byzantines, under Emperor Constantine XI, attacked the Turks.||Defenders||50,000 Turks under Sultan Mehmed II.|
|Battle of Towton||🏴 England, Yorkshire||1461||The 40,000 strong House of York army, under Edward IV, attacked the House of Lancaster during the War of the Roses.||Attackers||60,000 of the House of Lancaster under Henry Beaufort.|
|Battle of Hohenlinden||🇩🇪 Germany, near Munich||1800||100,000 French, under Moreau and Ney, attacked the Austrians and Bavarians.||Attackers||120,000 Austrians under John of Austria.|
|Battle of Austerlitz||🇨🇿 Czechia||1805||73,000 French (139 guns), under Emperor Napoleon I Bonaparte, attacked the Russian and Austrians (278 guns).||Attackers||85,000 Russians and Austrians under Tsar Alexander I and Emperor Francis II.|
|Battle of Trafalgar||Atlantic Ocean||1805||27 British ships, under Nelson, attacked French and Spanish ships.||Attackers||33 Spanish and French ships under Villeneuve.|
|Battle of Leipzig||🇩🇪 Germany, Saxony||1813||210,000 Frenchmen, with 700 guns, under Emperor Napoleon I Bonaparte, attacked the Prussians, Austrians and Russians.||Defenders||310,000 Prussians, Austrians and Russians under Prince Schwarzenberg and Alexander I.|
|Battle of Hanau||🇩🇪 Germany, Frankfurt||1813||60,000 French troops, under Napoleon I, attacked the Bavarian and Austrian troops.||Attackers||45,000 Bavarians / Austrians under Carl von Wrede.|
|Battle of Waterloo||🇧🇪 Belgium||1815||72,000 Frenchmen with 246 guns under Emperor Napoleon I Bonaparte attacked.||Defenders||68,000 English / Dutch (156 guns) and 31,000 Prussians under Wellington and Blücher.|
|Battle of Fredericksburg||🇺🇸 USA, Virginia||1862||72,000 Confederate soldiers, under General Lee, attacked Union troops.||Attackers||100,000 Union army soldiers under General Burnside.|
|Battle of Gettysburg||🇺🇸 USA, Pennsylvania||1863||75,000 Confederates, under General Lee, attacked 88,000 Union soldiers.||Defenders||Union Army (88,000) under General Meade.|
|Battle of Königgrätz / Sadowa||🇨🇿 Czechia||1866||278,000 Prussians, under Chief of Staff Moltke, attacked Austrian forces.||Attackers||271,000 Austrians under Benedek.|
|Battle of Sedan||🇫🇷 France||1870||120,000 Frenchmen, with 564 guns, attacked German forces.||Defenders||200,000 Germans with 744 guns under Moltke.|
|Battle of Little Big Horn River||🇺🇸 USA||1876||Cheyenne, Dakota, and Arapaho, under chiefs Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse, attacked.||Attackers||Cavalry Regiment under General Custer.|
|Battle of Tannenberg||🇵🇱 Poland||1914||300,000 Germans, under General Hindenburg, attacked Russian army.||Attackers||2nd Russian Army (300,000) under Samsonov.|
|Battle of Verdun||🇫🇷 France||1916||75 French divisions (†167,000) under Joffre, Pétain and Nivelle attacked.||Undecisive||50 German divisions (†150,000) under Falkenhayn.|
|Battle of Jutland||North Sea, Skagerrak strait||1916||The Battle of Jutland was the last naval battle primarily fought by battleships.
|Battle of Britain||🏴 England||1940||
Of all the historical battles this is the only one fought primarily by aircraft.
|Pearl Harbor||🇺🇸 USA, Hawaii||1941||4,000 American soldiers, on 10 ships and 261 aircraft were killed.||Attackers||Surprise attack by 360 Japanese aircraft under Admiral Chūichi Nagumo. Perspectives from both Japanese and American perspectives.|
|Battle of Midway||Pacific Ocean||1942||
The most recent of all naval historical battles.
|Battle of Stalingrad||🇷🇺 Russia||1942||850,000 German, Italian and Romanian soldiers, under Generalfeldmarschall (Grand Admiral) Paulus, attacked a much larger Soviet army.||Defenders||1,700,000 Soviet soldiers under Zhukov, Timoshenko and Vasilevsky.|
|Battle of Ardennes||🇧🇪 Belgium||1944||250,000 German soldiers, under Rundstedt, attacked US army forces.||Defenders||1st and 3rd US Army (400,000) under Eisenhower.|
|Battle of Huế||🇻🇳 Vietnam||1968||10,000 († 668) US Americans and South Vietnamese attacked.||Attackers||10,000 († 2400[US] OR 5133[VN] North Vietnamese.|
|Gulf War||🇰🇼 Kuwait, 🇮🇶 Iraq||1991||490,000  Coalition forces under US General Schwarzkopf, attacked Iraqi forces.||Attackers||550,000 Iraqi soldiers during the Gulf War.|
|Battle of Baghdad||🇮🇶 Iraq||2003||45,000 Iraqis under Saddam Hussein attacked American-led forces.||Defenders||300,000 Americans under Commander Franks.|
See also: Worst Dictators & Tyrants… | Famous Assassinations…
Historical battles notes: †: Died.  Coalition forces from Kuwait, USA, UK, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, France, Iraqi Kurdistan plus 30 other countries. [US] MACV US Military Assistance Command figures. [VN] PAVN Vietnam People’s Army of Vietnam figures.
War does not determine who is right – only who is left– Bertrand Russell
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