Kings and queens of England

Kings and Queens of England

The Kings and Queens of England Chronological All Time List

“Do You Seriously Expect Me To Be The First Prince Of Wales In History Not To Have A Mistress?” – Prince Charles

A surprisingly open quote by Prince Charles from the Daily Mail newspaper 1994. Compared to his ancestors this heir to the throne is fairly well-behaved. Henry VIII and his six wives springs to mind – and if you can’t remember the fate of each of Henry VIII’s wives this mnemonic should help. Our timeline shows all the Kings and Queens of England since 1066 AD along with which house (family) each monarch belonged to. We’ve also included the English civil war period between 1649 and 1660, during which there was no ruling English monarch.

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King / Queen / Monarch Ruled Born – Died # Where born Pedigree Demise Countries ruled Kings and Queens of England Facts, Events and Trivia
The Normans 1066 – 1154 Until 1603 the English and Scottish Crowns were separate.
King William I (William the Conqueror / William the Bastard) 1066 – 1087 1028 – 9 Sep 1087 1 Château de Falaise, France Son of Robert I illness England Invaded England and killed King Harold at the Battle of Hastings on 14 Oct 1066. Responsible for The Doomsday Book, effectively the first national census.
King William II (William Rufus / William the Red) 1087 – 1100 1056 – 2 Aug 1100 2 Normandy, France Son of William I killed by arrow in New Forest England So called because of his reddish hair. The Rufus Stone, in the New Forest, marks the place where he fell. Whether his death was deliberate or accidental remains unclear.
King Henry I (Henry Beauclerc) 1100 – 1135 Sep 1058 – 1 Dec 1135 3 Selby, England William Rufus’ brother illness England Naming his daughter Matilda as successor caused a crisis after his death which led to civil war.
King Stephen 1135 – 1154 1092 – 25 Oct 1154 4 Blois, France Nephew of Henry I stomach illness England
The Plantagenets 1154 – 1399 The Plantagenets were a huge powerful family not just in England but throughout Europe.
King Henry II 1154 – 1189 5 Mar 1133 – 6 Jul 1189 5 Le Mans, France Grandson of Henry I bleeding ulcer England Controlled more of France than the King of France! Appointed Thomas A Becket as Chancellor then Archbishop of Canterbury and possibly ordered Becket’s assassination in Canterbury Cathedral on 29 December 1170.
King Richard I (Richard the Lionheart / Richard Coeur de Lion) 1189 – 1199 8 Sep 1157 – 6 Apr 1199 6 Fotheringhay Castle, Fotheringhay, England Third son of Henry II arrow wound which became gangrenous England Only in England for ten months and spent most of his life as a brave warrior king fighting The Crusades in the Holy Land to liberate them from Islamic rule.
King John 1199 – 1216 24 Dec 1166 – 19 Oct 1216 7 Beaumont Palace, Oxford, England Fifth son of Henry II dysentery England King John approved the Magna Carta at Runnymede in 1215 using his seal.
King Henry III (Henry of Winchester) 1216 – 1272 1 Oct 1207 -16 Nov 1272 8 Winchester Castle, England Son of John illness England, de-facto Wales Longest reign of any English monarch. Was crowned twice. The first on 28th October 1216 in his mother’s chaplet then on 17th May 1220 at Westminster Abbey, which he had rebuilt during his reign in gothic style.
King Edward I (Edward Longshanks / The Hammer of the Scots) 1272 – 1307 17 Jun 1239 – 7 Jul 1307 9 Westminster, London, England Son of Henry III dysentery England, Wales (1284 onwards) So called because he was over six foot tall and because he fought against Scots King, Robert the Bruce. Formed the Model Parliament on 13 November 1295. Edward conquered Wales between 1277 and 1283 resulting in the annexation of the Principality of Wales and the last remaining independent Welsh principalities in 1284 which became united with England.
King Edward II (Edward of Caernarfon) 1307 – deposed Jan 1327 25 Apr 1284 – 21 Sep1327 10 Caernarfon Castle, Caernarfon, Wales Son of Edward I murdered England, Wales Deposed by his wife Isabella of France. Probably murdered in prison at Berkeley Castle in Gloucestershire.
King Edward III (Edward of Windsor) 1327 – 1377 13 Nov 1312 – 21 Jun 1377 11 Windsor Castle, Windsor, England Son of Edward II stroke England, Wales Popular monarch who restored royal authority and asserted military power in Europe. Founded the Order of the Garter.
Richard II 1377 – 1399 deposed 1399, died around 14 Feb 1400 12 Bordeaux, France Grandson of Edward III, son of the Black Prince murdered England, Wales Probably murdered in prison by his cousin Henry IV who took over the throne.
The House of Lancaster 1399 – 1461
Henry IV (Henry of Bolingbroke) 1399 – 1413 3 Apr 1366 – 20 Mar 1413 13 Bolingbroke Castle, England Grandson of Edward III, son of John of Gaunt protracted unknown illness England, Wales Seized the crown by forcing Richard II to abdicate. His reign experienced many rebellions. His coronation on 13 Oct 1399 was the first time English was spoken since the Norman conquest.
Henry V (The Warrior King) 1413 – 1422 16 Sep 1386 – 31 Aug 1422 14 Monmouth, Monmouthshire, Wales Son of Henry IV dysentery or toxic megacolon England, Wales First English king who could read and write English comfortably. Henry V fought in the Battle of Agincourt (25 Oct 1415), famous for English use of the longbow, one of the greatest victories in the Hundred Years War against France.
Henry VI (Henry of Windsor) 1422 – deposed 1461 6 Dec 1421 – 21 May 1471 15 Windsor Castle, Windsor, England Son of Henry V officially melancholy, more likely murdered England, Wales Succeeded to throne aged just 9 months, the youngest ever English king. The coronation was on 6 Nov 1429. Founded Eton College in 1440 and Kings College, Cambridge. Crowned King of France in Paris at Notre Dame on 16 Dec 1431.
The House of York 1461 – 1485
King Edward IV 1461 – deposed 3 Oct 1470 28 Apr 1442 – 9 Apr 1483 16 Rouen, France Great grandson of Edmund of York, Edward III’s youngest
son
England, Wales Came to the throne in 1461 after defeating Henry Vl at the Battle of Towton, in Yorkshire. He was just 19 years old. Tried to bring peace to the country. During his reign the first printing press was established in Westminster by William Caxton.
Henry VI AGAIN 1470 – 1471 15 Son of Henry V England, Wales
King Edward IV AGAIN 1471 – 1483 11 April 1471 – 9 Apr 1483 16 Great grandson of Edmund of York, Edward III’s youngest
son
illnesses England, Wales
King Edward V 1483 (9 April to 26 June) 2 Nov 1470 – 26 Jun 1483 17 Westminster, London, England Great grandson of Edmund of York, Edward III’s youngest
son
unknown England, Wales Reigned for just six weeks. It’s likely Edward and his brother Richard were murdered in the Tower of London
King Richard III 1483 – 1485 2 Oct 1452 – 22 Aug 1485 18 Fotheringhay Castle, Fotheringhay, England Uncle of Edward V killed on battlefield England, Wales Killed during the Battle of Bosworh Field against Henry VII (Henry Tudor) which ended the War of the Roses. Probably killed the two princes Edward and Richard.
The Tudors 1485 – 1603
King Henry VII 1485 – 1509 28 Jan 1457 – 21 Apr 1509 19 Pembroke Castle, Pembroke, Wales Grandson of Henry V, wife’s second husband tuberculosis England, Wales Gained the throne after killing Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485 which ended the War of the Roses between the House of Lancaster and House of York. Prosperous reign.
King Henry VIII 1509 – 1547 28 June 1491 – 28 Jan 1547 20 Palace of Placentia, Greenwich, London, England Henry VII’s second son obesity England, Wales, Ireland (after 1542) Henry had six wives: Catherine Parr (married 1543–1547), Catherine Howard (married 1540–1541), Anne of Cleves (married 1540–1540), Jane Seymour (married 1536–1537), Anne Boleyn (married 1533–1536) and Catherine of Aragon (married 1509–1533).
Use this mnemonic to remember the fate of Henry’s wives: Divorced, Beheaded, Died. Divorced, Beheaded, Survived. Which is great but you also need this mnemonic to remember the names of Henry VIII’s six wives in order along with many more. In 1542 Henry VIII was proclaimed King of Ireland in the Crown of Ireland Act by the Irish Parliament.
King Edward VI 1547 – 1553 12 Oct 1537 – 6 Jul 1553 21 Hampton Court Palace, Molesey, England Henry’s son by Jane Seymour uncertain, possibly tuberculosis or bronchopneumonia England, Wales, Ireland Son of Henry VIII and his fourth wife Jane Seymour, died aged 15.
Queen Mary I (Bloody Mary) 1553 – 1558 18 Feb 1516 – 17 Nov 1558 22 Palace of Placentia, Greenwich, London, England Henry’s daughter by Queen Catherine influenza England, Wales, Ireland Daughter of Henry VIII and Katharine of Aragon. First woman to successfully claim the throne of England. Married Phillip of Spain. She was a king’s daughter; a king’s sister; a king’s wife, a queen, and by the same title a king. Mary persecuted Protestants which led to her being called Bloody Mary.
Queen Elizabeth I (Good Queen Bess, Gloriana, Bess, The Virgin Queen, The Faerie Queen) 1558 – 1603 07 Sep 1533 – 24 Mar 1603 23 Palace of Placentia, Greenwich, London, England Henry’s daughter by Anne Boleyn melancholy, old age or blood poisoning England, Wales, Ireland Elizabeth is the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn and the last Queen of England. Defeated the Spanish Armada. James VI was organised as her successor uniting England and Scotland as the United Kingdom.
The Stuarts 1603 – 1714 There was a gap during The Commonwealth of England
James I (King James VI of Scotland) 1603 – 1625 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625 24 Edinburgh Castle, Edinburgh, Scotland Great-great-grandson of Henry VII dysentery England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland James was the son of Mary Queen of Scots and the first monarch to rule both countries as the de-facto king of Great Britain. He was a popular monarch. During his reign the Gunpowder Plot was foiled in 1605. The King James bible translation was authorised. Sir Walter Raleigh was executed.
Charles I 1625 – 1649 19 Nov 1600 – 30 Jan 1649 25 Dunfermline Palace, Dunfermline, Scotland Second son of James I execution, beheaded England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland Charles was a short, quiet man with a stammer. He was an art lover. Charles believed in the divine right of kings to rule and constantly argued with Parliament. Using Royal Prerogative he locked MPs out of Parliament between 1629 and 1640 in the Eleven Years Tyranny. In 1637 he Imposed a new prayer book on the Scots which led them to invade England and Charles was forced to recall and deal with Parliament to finance a war to force the Scots out of England. King and Parliament were on a collision course and after attempting to arrest his critics in Parliament civil war was inevitable which eventually led to his execution.
The English Civil War 1642 – 1651 Roundheads (supporters of parliament) and Cavaliers (Royalists that supported the king) led to the trial and execution of Charles I and replacement of the English monarchy.
The Commonwealth of England 1649 – 1653 On 19th May 1649 the monarchy was replaced by a Republic called “The Commonwealth of England”. During this period there were no kings and queens of England and it was ruled by Parliament.
Protectorate declared 1653 – 1659 Parliament appointed Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector of the Commonwealth in 1653 and was then dissolved. Cromwell governed
England, which included Wales, Scotland and Ireland until his death in 1658. His son Richard Cromwell succeeded him as Lord Protector but abdicated when he couldn’t control the army and lost the confidence of Parliament which led to the restoration of the monarchy.
The Restoration 1660 – 1785 England, Scotland and Wales were eventually united as Great Britain by the 1707 Act of Union.
Charles II 1660 – 1685 29 May 1630 – 6 Feb 1685 26 St James’s Palace, London, England Oldest son of Charles I sudden apoplectic fit England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland Charles had already been King of Scotland since 1651 and returned to London and ruled England (including Wales) and Scotland. Charles was brilliant and seen as a loveable rogue and merry monarch. He was a patron of the arts and science founding the Royal Observatory, a supporter of the Royal Society (whose members included Sir Isaac Newton) and personal patron of Sir Christopher Wren (who built St. Paul’s Cathedral). The anniversary of the Restoration (and Charles’s birthday on 29th May) was celebrated in England as Oak Apple Day until it was formally abolished in 1859 but is still celebrated in some parts of the country.
James II (James VII King of Scotland) 1685 – 1688 14 Oct 1633 – 16 Sep 1701 27 St James’s Palace, London, England Brother of Charles II brain haemorrhage England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland James was a convert to Catholicism and made himself unpopular by pursuing religious tolerance policies. He put down a rebellion led by the Duke of Monmouth (which resulted in savage punishments imposed by Judge Jeffreys in the Bloody Assizes) led to conflict with parliament which he suspended In 1685. Fearing a Catholic succession Protestants led by William of Orange invaded England with a dutch fleet in 1688 (The Glorious Revolution) and James fled abroad – which Parliament declared an abdication.
Queen Mary II and King William III 1688 – 1694 30 Apr 1662 – 28 Dec 1694 28 St James’s Palace, London, England Daughter of James II smallpox England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland William and Mary were joint rulers until her death in 1694. She deferred to William but in his absence proved capable and she was respected as a dutiful wife and together they were an effective team.
William III (King William II of Scotland and “King Billy” in Ireland) aka William of Orange
1694 – 1702 14 Nov 1650 – 8 Mar 1702 28 Binnenhof, Netherlands Grandson of Charles I pneumonia (a complication of a broken collarbone after falling from horse, Sorrel) England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland William and Mary’s reign in England ended the bitter conflict between Crown and Parliament. He deeply mourned Mary’s death and wasn’t a popular sole monarch.
Queen Anne (Anne Stuart) 1702 – 1714 6 Feb 1665 – 1 Aug 1714 29 St James’s Palace, London, England Sister of Mary II ill health then stroke Great Britain Anne suffered from ill health most of her life and all 17 of her children died. Although the influence of the crown diminished during her reign she attended more cabinet meetings than most rulers before or since. It was both prosperous and stable and saw political and diplomatic achievements including the 1707 Act of Union between Scotland and England which means Anne was the first ruler of Great Britain.
The House of Hanovarians 1714 – 1901 The House of Hannover
King George I (George Louis / Georg Ludwig) 1714 – 1727 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727 30 Hanover, Germany Great-grandson of James I stroke Great Britain and Ireland George married his cousin Sophia and they had two children together after which he divorced her for alleged infidelity and imprisoned her in a castle until she died in 1726. In the early years of his reign George was active in British foreign policy helping to forge the Treaty of Hanover in 1718 with Great Britain, France and Prussia to counterbalance an Austro-Spanish Treaty of Vienna. In 1721 Robert Walpole was appointed first lord of the Treasury, effectively Britain’s first prime minister.
King George II (George Augustus / Georg August) 1727 – 1760 30 Oct 1683 – 25 Oct 1760 31 Hanover, Germany Son of George I aortic aneurysm Great Britain and Ireland George was more interested in hunting than politics but he had a grasp of foreign policy and prevented, or sidelined, the appointment of commanders or ministers he disliked. He saw British interests expand around the world and ended the Jacobite challenge to the Hanoverian dynasty. He was the last English King to be on the battlefield at the Battle of Dettingen against the French in 1743.
King George III (George William Frederick) 1760 – 1820 4 Jun 1738 – 29 Jan 1820 32 London, England Grandson of George II dementia United Kingdom George married Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz in 1761. They were happily married and had 9 sons and 6 daughters together. He suffered recurring fits of madness and his son (George IV) acted as regent after 1810. The American Colonies proclaimed their independence on 4th July 1776. Great Britain and Ireland were united into a single nation, the United Kingdom, by the 1801 Act of Union. Wars with France continued until Napoleon was defeat at Waterloo in 1815.
King George IV (George Augustus Frederick) 1820 – 1830 12 Aug 1762 – 26Jun 1830 33 St James’s Palace, London, England Son of George III heart attack United Kingdom Unpopular monarch who was obese, indulgent and a heavy drinker. He was ridiculed when he appeared in public. In 1828 the Duke of Wellington becomes British Prime Minister and in 1829 The Metropolitan Police Force is set up by Robert Peel and The Catholic Relief Act is passed, which allowed Catholics to become Members of Parliament.
King William IV (William Henry) 1830 – 1837 21 Aug 1765 – 20 Jun 1837 34 Buckingham House, London, England Brother of George IV heart attack United Kingdom George joined the Royal Navy at 13 years old and was nicknamed the “Sailor King”. He saw service at the Battle of St Vincent in 1780 against the Spanish and in New York during the American War of Independence. Slavery was abolished in the colonies in 1833. His illegitimate children with Mrs Jordan were the main beneficiaries of his will and notable descendants include Prime Minister David Cameron, author Duff Cooper and TV presenter Adam Hart-Davis.
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) 1837 – 1901 24 May 1819 – 22 Jan 1901 35 Kensington Palace, London, England Niece of William IV cerebral hemorrhage United Kingdom Under Victoria’s rule british influence and the British Empire reached their highest point. She had nine children with Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha who was the love of her life and became her main advisor. Her reign is the longest of any British monarch and longest of any female monarch to date.
The House of Saxe – Coburg Gotha 1901 – 1910
King Edward VII (Albert Edward) 1901 – 1910 9 Nov 1841 – 6 May 1910 36 Buckingham Palace, London, England Son of Victoria and Albert pneumonia United Kingdom Edward enjoyed a playboy indulgent lifestyle during Victoria’s reign and she had a low opinion of him. As king, in 1904, he contributed to the Anglo-French “Entente Cordiale” and the Triple Entente between Britain, France and Russia and he became known as Edward the Peacemaker.
The House of Windsor 1910 to date The family name was changed to Windsor in 1917 because of general anti-German feeling.
King George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert) 1910 – 1936 3 Jun 1865 – 20 Jan 1936 37 Marlborough House, London, England Second son of Edward VII euthanasia United Kingdom The 1911 Parliament Act established the supremacy of the elected British House of Commons over the House of Lords, which was unelected. Ruled Britain through WW1 1914 – 1918. The Irish Sinn Fein Easter Rising in 1916 led to an independent Parliament in Ireland in 1918. The 1918 Representation of the People Acts in 1918 and 1928 extended votes to all women over the age of 21. In 1924 the first Labour ministry was appointed. In 1931 the Statute of Westminster recognised the Empire dominions as separate, independent states within the Commonwealth of Nations.
King Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David) 1936 (20 Jan – 11 Dec) 23 Jun 1894 – 28 May 1972 38 White Lodge, London, England son of George V cancer of the larynx United Kingdom Ruled for 325 days before abdicating to marry Mrs Wallis Simpson because he was not able to marry a divorced woman and become King. Mrs. Simpson was an American divorcee with two living ex-husbands.
King George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George) 1936 – 1952 14 Dec 1895 – 6 Feb 1952 39 Sandringham House, Norfolk, England Second son of
George V
lung cancer United Kingdom George wasn’t expecting to be king and dreaded public speaking because of a stammer. With the help of Lionel Logue, an Australian-born speech therapist, he improved enough to open the new Parliament House in Canberra, Australia in 1927. He ruled during WW2 (1939 – 1945) and remained in London during the Blitz with Elizabeth and Margaret at Windsor Castle and restored the popularity of the monarchy. The George Medal and Cross were founded his suggestion to recognise acts of exceptional civilian bravery.
Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) 1953 to date 21 Apr 1926 – 40 Mayfair, London, England Daughter of George VI United Kingdom Queen Elizabeth II is the 40th monarch since William the Conqueror in 1066 and her coronation on 2nd June 1953 was televised for the first time. She married Philip Mountbatten, Duke of Edinburgh on 20th November 1947 and has now reigned the longer than all the kings and queens of England.

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