Kings and queens of England

Kings and Queens of England

The Kings and Queens of England Chronological All Time List

Do You Seriously Expect Me To Be The First Prince Of Wales In History Not To Have A Mistress? – Prince Charles

A surprisingly open quote by Prince Charles from the Daily Mail newspaper 1994. The heir to the throne could be considered fairly well-behaved compared to Henry VIII and his six wives, and if you can’t remember the fate of each of Henry VIII’s wives this mnemonic should help. ADDucation’s timeline includes all the Kings and Queens of England since 1066 AD along with the house/family each of the kings and queens of England belonged to. We’ve also included the English civil war period between 1649 and 1660, during which there was no ruling English monarch.

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King / Queen / Monarch + FamilyRuledBorn – Died#Where bornPedigreeDemiseCountries ruledKings and Queens of England Facts, Events and Trivia
The Normans1066 – 1154Until 1603 the English and Scottish Crowns were separate.
King William I (William the Conqueror / William the Bastard)1066 – 10871028 – 9 Sep 10871Château de Falaise, France.Son of Robert Iillness.EnglandInvaded England and killed King Harold at the Battle of Hastings on 14 Oct 1066. Responsible for The Doomsday Book, effectively the first national census.
King William II (William Rufus / William the Red)1087 – 11001056 – 2 Aug 11002Normandy, France.Son of William Ikilled by arrow in New Forest.EnglandSo called because of his reddish hair. The Rufus Stone, in the New Forest, marks the place where he fell. Whether his death was deliberate or accidental remains unclear.
King Henry I (Henry Beauclerc)1100 – 1135Sep 1058 – 1 Dec 11353Selby, England.William Rufus’ brotherillness.EnglandNaming his daughter Matilda as successor caused a crisis after his death which led to civil war.
King Stephen1135 – 11541092 – 25 Oct 11544Blois, France.Nephew of Henry Istomach illness.England
The Plantagenets1154 – 1399The Plantagenets were a huge powerful family not just in England but throughout Europe.
King Henry II1154 – 11895 Mar 1133 – 6 Jul 11895Le Mans, France.Grandson of Henry Ibleeding ulcer.EnglandControlled more of France than the King of France! Appointed Thomas A Becket as Chancellor then Archbishop of Canterbury and possibly ordered Becket’s assassination in Canterbury Cathedral on 29 December 1170.
King Richard I (Richard the Lionheart / Richard Coeur de Lion)1189 – 11998 Sep 1157 – 6 Apr 11996Fotheringhay Castle, Fotheringhay, England.Third son of Henry IIarrow wound which became gangrenous.EnglandOnly in England for ten months and spent most of his life as a brave warrior king fighting The Crusades in the Holy Land to liberate them from Islamic rule.
King John1199 – 121624 Dec 1166 – 19 Oct 12167Beaumont Palace, Oxford, England.Fifth son of Henry IIdysentery.EnglandKing John approved the Magna Carta at Runnymede in 1215 using his seal.
King Henry III (Henry of Winchester)1216 – 12721 Oct 1207 -16 Nov 12728Winchester Castle, England.Son of Johnillness.England, de-facto WalesLongest reign of any English monarch. Was crowned twice. The first on 28th October 1216 in his mother’s chaplet then on 17th May 1220 at Westminster Abbey, which he had rebuilt during his reign in Gothic style.
King Edward I (Edward Longshanks / The Hammer of the Scots)1272 – 130717 Jun 1239 – 7 Jul 13079Westminster, London, England.Son of Henry IIIdysentery.England, Wales (1284 onwards)So called because he was over six foot tall and because he fought against Scots King, Robert the Bruce. Formed the Model Parliament on 13 November 1295. Edward conquered Wales between 1277 and 1283 resulting in the annexation of the Principality of Wales and the last remaining independent Welsh principalities in 1284 which became united with England.
King Edward II (Edward of Caernarfon)1307 – deposed Jan 132725 Apr 1284 – 21 Sep132710Caernarfon Castle, Caernarfon, Wales.Son of Edward Imurdered.England, WalesDeposed by his wife Isabella of France. Probably murdered in prison at Berkeley Castle in Gloucestershire.
King Edward III (Edward of Windsor)1327 – 137713 Nov 1312 – 21 Jun 137711Windsor Castle, Windsor, England.Son of Edward IIstroke.England, WalesPopular monarch who restored royal authority and asserted military power in Europe. Founded the Order of the Garter.
Richard II1377 – 1399deposed 1399, died around 14 Feb 140012Bordeaux, France.Grandson of Edward III, son of the Black Princemurdered.England, WalesProbably murdered in prison by his cousin Henry IV who took over the throne.
The House of Lancaster1399 – 1461
Henry IV (Henry of Bolingbroke)1399 – 14133 Apr 1366 – 20 Mar 141313Bolingbroke Castle, England.Grandson of Edward III, son of John of Gauntprotracted unknown illness.England, WalesSeized the crown by forcing Richard II to abdicate. His reign experienced many rebellions. His coronation on 13 Oct 1399 was the first time English was spoken since the Norman conquest.
Henry V (The Warrior King)1413 – 142216 Sep 1386 – 31 Aug 142214Monmouth, Monmouthshire, Wales.Son of Henry IVdysentery or toxic megacolon.England, WalesFirst English king who could read and write English comfortably. Henry V fought in the Battle of Agincourt (25 Oct 1415), famous for English use of the longbow, one of the greatest victories in the Hundred Years War against France.
Henry VI (Henry of Windsor)1422 – deposed 14616 Dec 1421 – 21 May 147115Windsor Castle, Windsor, England.Son of Henry Vofficially melancholy, more likely murdered.England, WalesSucceeded to throne aged just 9 months, the youngest ever English king. The coronation was on 6 Nov 1429. Founded Eton College in 1440 and Kings College, Cambridge. Crowned King of France in Paris at Notre Dame on 16 Dec 1431.
The House of York1461 – 1485
King Edward IV1461 – deposed 3 Oct 147028 Apr 1442 – 9 Apr 148316Rouen, France.Great grandson of Edmund of York, Edward III’s youngest
England, WalesCame to the throne in 1461 after defeating Henry VI at the Battle of Towton, in Yorkshire. He was just 19 years old. Tried to bring peace to the country. During his reign the first printing press was established in Westminster by William Caxton.
Henry VI AGAIN1470 – 147115Son of Henry VEngland, Wales
King Edward IV AGAIN1471 – 148311 April 1471 – 9 Apr 148316Great grandson of Edmund of York, Edward III’s youngest
illnesses.England, Wales
King Edward V1483 (9 April to 26 June)2 Nov 1470 – 26 Jun 148317Westminster, London, England.Great grandson of Edmund of York, Edward III’s youngest
unknown.England, WalesReigned for just six weeks. It’s likely Edward and his brother Richard were murdered in the Tower of London
King Richard III1483 – 14852 Oct 1452 – 22 Aug 148518Fotheringhay Castle, Fotheringhay, England.Uncle of Edward Vkilled on battlefield.England, WalesKilled during the Battle of Bosworth Field against Henry VII (Henry Tudor) which ended the War of the Roses. Probably killed the two princes Edward and Richard.
The Tudors1485 – 1603
King Henry VII1485 – 150928 Jan 1457 – 21 Apr 150919Pembroke Castle, Pembroke, Wales.Grandson of Henry V, wife’s second husbandtuberculosis.England, WalesGained the throne after killing Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485 which ended the War of the Roses between the House of Lancaster and House of York. Prosperous reign.
King Henry VIII1509 – 154728 June 1491 – 28 Jan 154720Palace of Placentia, Greenwich, London, England.Henry VII’s second sonobesity.England, Wales, Ireland (after 1542)Henry had six wives: Catherine Parr (married 1543–1547), Catherine Howard (married 1540–1541), Anne of Cleves (married 1540–1540), Jane Seymour (married 1536–1537), Anne Boleyn (married 1533–1536) and Catherine of Aragon (married 1509–1533).
Use this mnemonic to remember the fate of Henry’s wives: Divorced, Beheaded, Died. Divorced, Beheaded, Survived. Which is great but you also need this mnemonic to remember the names of Henry VIII’s six wives in order along with many more. In 1542 Henry VIII was proclaimed King of Ireland in the Crown of Ireland Act by the Irish Parliament.
King Edward VI1547 – 155312 Oct 1537 – 6 Jul 155321Hampton Court Palace, Molesey, England.Henry’s son by Jane Seymouruncertain, possibly tuberculosis or broncho-pneumonia.England, Wales, IrelandSon of Henry VIII and his fourth wife Jane Seymour, died aged 15.
Queen Mary I (Bloody Mary)1553 – 155818 Feb 1516 – 17 Nov 155822Palace of Placentia, Greenwich, London, England.Henry’s daughter by Queen Catherineinfluenza.England, Wales, IrelandDaughter of Henry VIII and Katharine of Aragon. First woman to successfully claim the throne of England. Married Phillip of Spain. She was a king’s daughter; a king’s sister; a king’s wife, a queen, and by the same title a king. Mary persecuted Protestants which led to her being called Bloody Mary.
Queen Elizabeth I (Good Queen Bess, Gloriana, Bess, The Virgin Queen, The Faerie Queen)1558 – 160307 Sep 1533 – 24 Mar 160323Palace of Placentia, Greenwich, London, England.Henry’s daughter by Anne Boleynmelancholy, old age or blood poisoning.England, Wales, IrelandElizabeth is the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn and the last Queen of England. Defeated the Spanish Armada. James VI was organized as her successor uniting England and Scotland as the United Kingdom.
The Stuarts1603 – 1714There was a gap during The Commonwealth of England
James I (King James VI of Scotland)1603 – 162519 June 1566 – 27 March 162524Edinburgh Castle, Edinburgh, Scotland.Great-great-grandson of Henry VIIdysentery.England, Wales, Scotland, IrelandJames was the son of Mary Queen of Scots and the first monarch to rule both countries as the de-facto king of Great Britain. He was a popular monarch. During his reign the Gunpowder Plot was foiled in 1605. The King James bible translation was authorized. Sir Walter Raleigh was executed.
Charles I1625 – 164919 Nov 1600 – 30 Jan 164925Dunfermline Palace, Dunfermline, Scotland.Second son of James Iexecution, beheaded.England, Wales, Scotland, IrelandCharles was a short, quiet man with a stammer. He was an art lover. Charles believed in the divine right of kings to rule and constantly argued with Parliament. Using Royal Prerogative he locked MP’s out of Parliament between 1629 and 1640 in the Eleven Years Tyranny. In 1637 he Imposed a new prayer book on the Scots which led them to invade England and Charles was forced to recall and deal with Parliament to finance a war to force the Scots out of England. King and Parliament were on a collision course and after attempting to arrest his critics in Parliament civil war was inevitable which eventually led to his execution.
The English Civil War1642 – 1651Roundheads (supporters of parliament) and Cavaliers (Royalists who supported the king) led to the trial and execution of Charles I and replacement of the English monarchy.
The Commonwealth of England1649 – 1653On 19th May 1649 the monarchy was replaced by a Republic called “The Commonwealth of England”. During this period there were no kings and queens of England and it was ruled by Parliament.
Protectorate declared1653 – 1659Parliament appointed Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector of the Commonwealth in 1653 and was then dissolved. Cromwell governed England, which included Wales, Scotland and Ireland until his death in 1658. His son Richard Cromwell succeeded him as Lord Protector but abdicated when he couldn’t control the army and lost the confidence of Parliament which led to the restoration of the monarchy.
The Restoration1660 – 1785England, Scotland and Wales were eventually united as Great Britain by the 1707 Act of Union and the monarchy was restored to be followed by kings and queens of England.
Charles II1660 – 168529 May 1630 – 6 Feb 168526St James’s Palace, London, England.Oldest son of Charles Isudden apoplectic fit.England, Wales, Scotland, IrelandCharles had already been King of Scotland since 1651 and returned to London and ruled England (including Wales) and Scotland. Charles was brilliant and seen as a loveable rogue and merry monarch. He was a patron of the arts and science founding the Royal Observatory, a supporter of the Royal Society (whose members included Sir Isaac Newton) and personal patron of Sir Christopher Wren (who built St. Paul’s Cathedral). The anniversary of the Restoration (and Charles’s birthday on 29th May) was celebrated in England as Oak Apple Day until it was formally abolished in 1859 but is still celebrated in some parts of the country.
James II (James VII King of Scotland)1685 – 168814 Oct 1633 – 16 Sep 170127St James’s Palace, London, England.Brother of Charles IIbrain hemorrhage.England, Wales, Scotland, IrelandJames was a convert to Catholicism and made himself unpopular by pursuing religious tolerance policies. He put down a rebellion led by the Duke of Monmouth (which resulted in savage punishments imposed by Judge Jeffreys in the Bloody Assizes) led to conflict with parliament which he suspended In 1685. Fearing a Catholic succession Protestants led by William of Orange invaded England with a dutch fleet in 1688 (The Glorious Revolution) and James fled abroad – which Parliament declared an abdication.
Queen Mary II and King William III1688 – 169430 Apr 1662 – 28 Dec 169428St James’s Palace, London, England.Daughter of James IIsmallpox.England, Wales, Scotland, IrelandOf all the kings and queens of England William and Mary were the only joint sovereigns until Mary’s death in 1694. She deferred to William, as a dutiful wife in those times, but in his absence proved capable and was respected. Together they were an effective team.
William III (King William II of Scotland and “King Billy” in Ireland) aka William of Orange
1694 – 170214 Nov 1650 – 8 Mar 170228Binnenhof, Netherlands.Grandson of Charles Ipneumonia (a complication of a broken collarbone after falling from horse, Sorrel).England, Wales, Scotland, IrelandWilliam and Mary’s reign in England ended the bitter conflict between Crown and Parliament. William deeply mourned Mary’s death and wasn’t a popular sole monarch.
Queen Anne (Anne Stuart)1702 – 17146 Feb 1665 – 1 Aug 171429St James’s Palace, London, England.Sister of Mary IIill health then stroke.Great BritainAnne suffered from ill health most of her life and all 17 of her children died. Although the influence of the crown diminished during her reign she attended more cabinet meetings than most rulers before or since. It was both prosperous and stable and saw political and diplomatic achievements including the 1707 Act of Union between Scotland and England which means Anne was the first ruler of Great Britain.
The House of Hanovarians1714 – 1901The House of Hanover
King George I (George Louis / Georg Ludwig)1714 – 172728 May 1660 – 11 June 172730Hanover, Germany.Great-grandson of James Istroke.Great Britain and IrelandGeorge married his cousin Sophia and they had two children together after which he divorced her for alleged infidelity and imprisoned her in a castle until she died in 1726. In the early years of his reign George was active in British foreign policy helping to forge the Treaty of Hanover in 1718 with Great Britain, France and Prussia to counterbalance an Austro-Spanish Treaty of Vienna. In 1721 Robert Walpole was appointed first lord of the Treasury, effectively Britain’s first prime minister.
King George II (George Augustus / Georg August)1727 – 176030 Oct 1683 – 25 Oct 176031Hanover, Germany.Son of George Iaortic aneurysm.Great Britain and IrelandGeorge was more interested in hunting than politics but he had a grasp of foreign policy and prevented, or sidelined, the appointment of commanders or ministers he disliked. He saw British interests expand around the world and ended the Jacobite challenge to the Hanoverian dynasty. He was the last English King to be on the battlefield at the Battle of Dettingen against the French in 1743.
King George III (George William Frederick)1760 – 18204 Jun 1738 – 29 Jan 182032London, England.Grandson of George IIdementia.United KingdomGeorge married Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz in 1761. They were happily married and had 9 sons and 6 daughters together. He suffered recurring fits of madness and his son (George IV) acted as regent after 1810. The American Colonies proclaimed their independence on 4th July 1776. Great Britain and Ireland were united into a single nation, the United Kingdom, by the 1801 Act of Union. Wars with France continued until Napoleon was defeat at Waterloo in 1815.
King George IV (George Augustus Frederick)1820 – 183012 Aug 1762 – 26Jun 183033St James’s Palace, London, England.Son of George IIIheart attack.United KingdomUnpopular monarch who was obese, indulgent and a heavy drinker. He was ridiculed when he appeared in public. In 1828 the Duke of Wellington becomes British Prime Minister and in 1829 The Metropolitan Police Force is set up by Robert Peel and The Catholic Relief Act is passed, which allowed Catholics to become Members of Parliament.
King William IV (William Henry)1830 – 183721 Aug 1765 – 20 Jun 183734Buckingham House, London, England.Brother of George IVheart attack.United KingdomGeorge joined the Royal Navy at 13 years old and was nicknamed the “Sailor King”. He saw service at the Battle of St Vincent in 1780 against the Spanish and in New York during the American War of Independence. Slavery was abolished in the colonies in 1833. His illegitimate children with Mrs Jordan were the main beneficiaries of his will and notable descendants include Prime Minister David Cameron, author Duff Cooper and TV presenter Adam Hart-Davis.
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria)1837 – 190124 May 1819 – 22 Jan 190135Kensington Palace, London, England.Niece of William IVcerebral hemorrhage.United KingdomUnder Victoria’s rule British influence and the British Empire reached their highest point. She had nine children with Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha who was the love of her life and became her main advisor.
The House of Saxe – Coburg Gotha1901 – 1910
King Edward VII (Albert Edward)1901 – 19109 Nov 1841 – 6 May 191036Buckingham Palace, London, England.Son of Victoria and Albertpneumonia.United KingdomEdward enjoyed a playboy indulgent lifestyle during Victoria’s reign and she had a low opinion of him. As king, in 1904, he contributed to the Anglo-French “Entente Cordiale” and the Triple Entente between Britain, France and Russia and he became known as Edward the Peacemaker.
The House of Windsor1910 to dateThe family name was changed to Windsor in 1917 because of general anti-German feeling.
King George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert)1910 – 19363 Jun 1865 – 20 Jan 193637Marlborough House, London, England.Second son of Edward VIIeuthanasia.United KingdomThe 1911 Parliament Act established the supremacy of the elected British House of Commons over the House of Lords, which was un-elected. Ruled Britain through WW1 1914 – 1918. The Irish Sinn Fein Easter Rising in 1916 led to an independent Parliament in Ireland in 1918. The 1918 Representation of the People Acts in 1918 and 1928 extended votes to all women over the age of 21. In 1924 the first Labour ministry was appointed. In 1931 the Statute of Westminster recognized the Empire dominions as separate, independent states within the Commonwealth of Nations.
King Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David)1936 (20 Jan – 11 Dec)23 Jun 1894 – 28 May 197238White Lodge, London, England.son of George Vcancer of the larynx.United KingdomRuled for 325 days before abdicating to marry Mrs Wallis Simpson because he was not able to marry a divorced woman and become King. Mrs. Simpson was an American divorcee with two living ex-husbands.
King George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George)1936 – 195214 Dec 1895 – 6 Feb 195239Sandringham House, Norfolk, England.Second son of
George V
lung cancer.United KingdomGeorge wasn’t expecting to be king and dreaded public speaking because of a stammer. With the help of Lionel Logue, an Australian-born speech therapist, he improved enough to open the new Parliament House in Canberra, Australia in 1927. He ruled during WW2 (1939 – 1945) and remained in London during the Blitz with Elizabeth and Margaret at Windsor Castle and restored the popularity of the monarchy. The George Medal and Cross were founded his suggestion to recognize acts of exceptional civilian bravery.
Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary)1953 to date21 Apr 1926 –40Mayfair, London, England.Daughter of George VIUnited KingdomQueen Elizabeth II is the 40th monarch since William the Conqueror in 1066 and her coronation on 2nd June 1953 was televised for the first time. She married Philip Mountbatten, Duke of Edinburgh on 20th November 1947 and has now reigned longer than any of the previous kings and queens of England.

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2 responses to “Kings and Queens of England”

  1. Avatar JC says:

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