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Famous Philosophers H-O

List of Famous Philosophers Quotes from H-O

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Famous Philosophers Country (today) Born / Died Philosophers quotes, theories and works (first published)
Habermas, Jürgen 🇩🇪 Germany 1929 Jürgen Habermas was a philosopher and sociologist, best known for his contributions to the “critical theories” and on the moral and social philosophy of the Marxist origins of the “Frankfurt School”. Main work: “Theory of Communicative Action”.
Hartmann, Nicolai 🇱🇻 Latvia 1882 – 1950 Nicolai Hartmann developed a layered structure of being; ideal being (values, mathematics) is timeless and infinite, real being (life, soul, spirit) is temporal and individual.
Heidegger, Martin 🇩🇪 Germany 1889 – 1976 Martin Heidegger was one of the most influential philosophers of the 20th century and founder of the fundamental ontology. Among other things he saw modern technology as a threat, realizing that it changes our attitudes / opinions towards the world. Helped shape Sartre, Gadamer, Hannah Arendt and many others. Major work “Being and Time” (1927).
Hegel, Georg Friedrich 🇩🇪 Germany 1770 – 1831 Friedrich Hegel was the main representative of German idealism; thesis-antithesis-synthesis. Hegel believed we only perceive the world indirectly and our minds only have access to images & perceptions of it (a virtual reality). Hegel’s most famous works: Phenomenology of Spirit (1806/ 07), Science of Logic (1831).
Heraclitus 🇹🇷 Turkey 540 – 480 BC Heraclitus believed all opposites are changing and in constant motion (Greek: “panta rhei” = everything flows). For example, war and peace, day and night, wealth and poverty, etc. For Heraclitus, dispute was the father of everything (dialectic).
Hobbes, Thomas 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 England, UK 🇬🇧 1588 – 1679 Thomas Hobbes claimed life without a state would be “solitary, poor, instinctive and short”. Waivering of individual freedom for the benefit of the state. Hobbes major work: Leviathan (1651).
Horkheimer, Max 🇩🇪 Germany 1895 – 1973 Max Horkheimer, as a representative of the “Frankfurt School”, oriented himself on Marxist principles along with Adorno, Bloch, Habermas, and Marcuse, and supported the student revolt of 1968. His main works: “Dialectic of Enlightenment” (1947, together with Adorno) and “Critique of Instrumental Reason” (1967).
Hume, David 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁳󠁣󠁴󠁿 Scotland, UK 🇬🇧 1711 – 1776 David Hume in his “epistemology” divided the mind into two classes: sensory impressions and ideas.
Husserl, Edmund 🇩🇪 Germany 1859 – 1938 Edmund Husserl adopted Brentano’s “intentionality” of consciousness and made it the central message of his phenomenology. Truth is a recognizable fact. Major work: “Being and Time” (1927).
Jaspers, Karl 🇩🇪 Germany 1883 – 1969 Not only a world-renowned philosopher, but also an important psychiatrist. Karl Jaspers counts as one of the main representatives of German existential philosophy. Close friend of Martin Heidegger and Hannah Ahrends. In 1945 he founded the philosophy magazine “Die Wandlung” (The Conversion) and in 1953, received an honorary doctorate from the University of Heidelberg. His work consists of over 30 books and several thousand letters and essays.
John of Salisbury
🇬🇧 UK 1120 – 1180 John of Salisbury (also known as Johannes von Salisbury, John the Little) was a philosopher, theologian and scholar. John the Little was opposed to the extremes of realism and nominalism in favor of common sense, a doctrine of utilitarianism, founded in his admiration of the literary skepticism of Cicero. Johannes von Salisbury believed education was not merely intellectual but moral, basically the world-view of Renaissance humanism.
Kant, Immanuel 🇩🇪 Germany 1724 – 1804 Highly influential German philosopher whose work “The Critique of Pure Reason” is considered one of the most important in modern philosophy. Devised the “categorical imperative”, a moral principle: “Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law”.
Kierkegaard, Søren 🇩🇰 Denmark 1813 – 1855 For Kierkegaard, regarded as the founder of existentialism, the spirit and criticism of organized religion are at the center of his philosophy, believing that our existence is our own free choice. His most important work: “Either/Or” (1843).
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm 🇩🇪 Germany 1646 – 1716 Leibniz is famous for his boundless optimism believing that God created the best possible Universe and that many substances exist in common harmony, such as between body and soul. In his essay “theodicy” of 1710 he seeks to explain how the suffering of the world is possible, although God is omnipotent and good.
Locke, John 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 England, UK 🇬🇧 1632 – 1704 John Locke was an initiator of the “Enlightenment” (explanation of circumstances through reason) and an empiricist, who saw the human mind as a blank slate which was only written on through the course of life. One of the most famous philosophers.
Lorenzen, Paul 🇩🇪 Germany 1915 – 1994 Together with Wilhelm Kamlah Lorenzen was a founder of the “Erlangen School” of Methodological constructivism. He was also the developer of logical propaedeutic (preschool of reasonable discourse) and dialogical logic (game semantics).
Luther, Martin 🇩🇪 Germany 1483 – 1556 Initiator of the Reformation. In his 95 theses (which he posted to the door of the Wittenberg Castle Church in 1517) Martin Luther railed against indulgences, the selling of public offices, pilgrimages and self-chastisement arguing that salvation comes from faith and God’s grace alone. Luther translated the New Testament from Latin into German in just 11 weeks making it widely accessible (1522).
Machiavelli, Niccolò 🇮🇹 Italy 1469-1527 Political philosopher of the modern era; Machiavelli advised state leaders in “Il Principe” (“The Prince”, 1513 /32) on cunning and deceit.
Marcuse, Herbert 🇩🇪 Germany 1898 – 1979 Neo-Marxist supporter and member of the “Frankfurt School”. Herbert Marcuse was a major critic of capitalism.
Marx, Karl 🇩🇪 Germany 1818-1883 The founder of historical materialism and the forerunner of communism lived in poverty. The “social being determines consciousness”. He authored his most famous work in 1867: “Das Kapital”.
Mill, John Stuart 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 England, UK 🇬🇧 1806 – 1873 John Stuart Mill was a representative of liberalism. One of John Mill’s most famous philosophers quotes was: “The essence of freedom is to do what you want to do”.
More, Thomas 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 England, UK 🇬🇧 1478 – 1535 In “Utopia” the humanist Thomas More called for social reform, was convicted and beheaded by Henry VIII.
Nicholas of Cusa
🇩🇪 Germany 1401 – 1464 Link between medieval scholasticism and the mysticism and metaphysics of the Renaissance. In his book “De Docta Ignorantia” Nicholas of Cusa writes about the limits of human knowledge.
Nietzsche, Friedrich 🇩🇪 Germany 1844 – 1900 His philosophy was directed against Christianity, which he claimed produced a “slave morality”. Nietzsche created the “superman” which was misused by the Nazis. Perceived reality always has a subjective perspective. A selection of his works: Thus Spoke Zarathustra (1885), The Gay Science (1887), Ecce Homo – how one becomes what one is (1908).

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