great philosophies

Great Philosophies

List of Great Philosophies

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Great PhilosophiesContent / Principles of the PhilosophyFamous Proponents
AtheismDenying the existence of GodAlexander Graham Bell, Charles Darwin, Bertrand Russell
ConstructivismMan doesn’t have the ability to recognize an objective reality. He “designs” his own reality in the mind. Distinguished between radical constructivism and Erlanger constructivismErnst von Glasersfeld, Heinz von Foerster, Paul Lorenzen
DeterminismAll actions are predetermined. Free will does not existAlbert Einstein, Max Planck, David Hume, John Locke
DialecticArt of reasoning with thesis, antithesis and synthesisHeraclitus, Socrates
DogmatismStating views as facts without critical examinationBlaise Pascal
DualismThe world is dominated by opposites, good and evil, God and the devil, mind and matter etc.Karl Popper, John Eccles, René Descartes, Leibniz, Thomas Henry Huxley
EnlightenmentPhilosophy placing reason and individualism rather than superstition in the centerJohn Locke, Max Horkheimer, Adorno, Voltaire
ExistentialismRejection of objective values, focus on fear, freedom, death, disgust and other human experiencesKarl Jaspers, Søren Kierkegaard, Jean Paul Sartre, Hannah Arendt, Henri Bergson
HumanismViewpoint placing humanity at center of all searches for meaningThomas More, Petrus Ramus, Johannes Reuchlin, Lorenzo Valla
IdealismRegards spirit, reason and consciousness as realitiesPlato, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Schelling, Hölderlin, Hegel
LiberalismIndividual freedom of mind and person through the elimination of violence and constraintsJohn Stuart Mill, Adam Smith, Karl Popper, Humboldt, Milton Friedman
Logical empiricismExperiential philosophy that renounces metaphysical elementsMoritz Schlick, Ludwig Wittgenstein, George Berkeley
MaterialismOnly the existence of matter is recognized. The independent existence of spirit is deniedLudwig Feuerbach
MonismOpposite of dualism and pluralism. All processes and things in the world are based on a single cause or substance and not e.g. mind and matterThales of Miletus, Thomas Hobbes, Paul Thiry d’ Holbach, Offray de La Mettrie
NaturalismAll phenomena can be explained by natural causesCharles Darwin, Marx, Feuerbach, Wilfrid Sellars
OptimismBelief in the victory of good in life. This world is the best of all possible worldsGottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
PantheismGod is the totality of all things. He is nature and the universe at the same time and subject to the laws of nature. There is no such thing as an omnipotent GodJohn Toland, Baruch Spinoza
PessimismBelief in the victory of evil in life. This world is the worst of all possible worldsArthur Schopenhauer
PositivismAll knowledge is based on perception. Metaphysics is impossibleLudwig Wittgenstein
PragmatismMethod of testing truths with the practical consequences of an actionCharles Sanders Peirce, William James, John Dewey
Pre-SocraticThe belief in myths and gods is replaced by mathematics and the laws of natural science. The so-called “Seven Sages of Greece” are considered the foundersThales of Miletus, Pittacus, Bias, Solon, Cleobulus, Myson, Chilo of Sparta
RationalismResults can only be obtained by thinking, reasoning and experienceBlaise Pascal, Karl Popper,
RealismReality which can only be recognized through recognitionBertrand Russell, Alfred Whitehead, Descartes, Spinoza
RelativismThe Absolute doesn’t exist
ScholasticismMedieval method of proof – allegations are broken down into pro / contra, considered and then “logically” chosen for their accuracyAbelard, Aegidius of Rome, Roger Bacon, Adelard of Bath, John Salisbury
SensualismAll knowledge derives from sensations and sense perceptionsGeorge Berkeley,
Skepticism (also known as Pyrrhonism)Opposite of dogmatism. Doubt is the principle of thought. There is no truth and no realityPhyrrhon of Elis, Sextus Empiricus
SolipsismOnly the existence of ones own, thinking Self is real, all things are consciousness. The outside world is just a dreamMax Stirner
SophistsMan stands in the foreground. He is the measure of all things. Sophists sought answers to the question: are values predetermined or man-made standards?Protagoras, Prodicus, Thrasymachus, Hippias of Elis, Antiphon
SpiritualismAll existence is rooted in the spiritual.Thomas Müntzer
StoicismMindset similar to religion. With self-control, serenity and tranquility one attains knowledge and wisdom. Faith in physics, logic and reason (ethics)Zeno of Citium, Cleanthes of Assos, Diogenes, Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius
SubjectivismBelief that all knowing is only of importance for the knowerRené Descartes
TranscendentalismExamines the possibilities and limits of human knowledgeImmanuel Kant
UniversalismMetaphysically, what is true in the universe is always true everywherePlato, Aristotle, Hegel
VoluntarismMetaphysically the will is the cause of all thingsFerdinand Tönnies, Paul Barth

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