roman gods and goddesses

Roman Gods and Goddesses A-Z

Roman Gods and Goddesses A-Z List of Roman Deities

ADDucation’s list of Roman gods and goddesses includes the parents, consorts, siblings, groups and titles of Roman gods. In addition the table includes the equivalent Greek gods on which the Roman pantheon of gods and Roman mythology is based. Similarly ADDucation’s other lists on Greek and Roman mythology include key facts, trivia and fascinating insights into the everyday lives of Greek and Roman people.

ADDucation Tips: Click column headings with arrows to sort Roman gods and goddesses. Click the + icon to expand columns on tablets and mobiles. Resize your browser to see more/less columns. To quickly find specific Roman gods enter the name of the deity in the “Filter table…” below. Key: Bold indicates male/masculine entities and bold+Italics indicates female/feminine entities

Roman DeitiesTitle/sFestivals and AnniversariesGroup/sGenderParentsSiblingsConsort/sOffspringGreek Equivalent
Abeona
Roman goddess of partings.Conception, childbirth and childcare. Indigitamenta[3].Female
Abundantia
Roman divine personification of abundance and prosperity.Abstract deity[4].Female
Acca Larentia
Mythical women and later Roman goddess associated with the Lares and identified with Larentina, Mana GenitaGeneta Mana and Muta.23 December Larentalia festivalAgricultural goddess. Etruscan origin.FemaleFaustulus (mortal shepherd)
Foster mother of Romulus and Remus. She had 12 sons. Romulus and her remaining 11 sons formed the Arval Brethren of priests.
Adeona / Adiona
Roman goddess of safe return, learning to walk and guiding children home.Childhood development. Indigitamenta[3].Female
Aequitas / Aecetia / Equitas
Roman divine personification of equity or fairness beyond legal justice. Used as an epithet “byname” for propaganda, e.g. Aequitas Augusti.Abstract deity[4].Female
Aestas / Aestatis
Roman goddess of summer usually depicted naked and garlands of grain/ears of corn. Associated with Phoebus.27 June Initium Aestatis festival marking the beginning of summer.Female
Agenoria
Roman goddess that encourages children to be active, e.g. walking reasoning, counting, singing etc.Childhood development. Indigitamenta[3].Female
Alemona
Roman goddess of unborn children who nourishes the growth of the embryo.Conception and pregnancy. Indigitamenta[3].Female
Angerona / Angeronia
Roman goddess of will, the winter solstice, suffering and silence who relieved pain and sorrow of men. Angerona was the protector of Rome and keeper of the sacred name of the city – which should not be spoken to conceal it from her enemies.21 December Angeronalia / Divalia festival in honor of Angerona. Sacrifices were made in the temple of Voluptia (which contained a statue of Angerona) to Angerona, Hercules and Ceres.Female
Anna Perenna /Annae Perena
Roman goddess of the succession of years based on the annual lunar cycle of the moon (per annum). Represented as an old woman. See also Luna.15 March New Year’s Day festival and holiday to honor Anna Perenna.FemaleBellus (king of Sidon)Dido / Elissa (Phoenician princess and founder of Carthage)
Antevorta / Porrima
Roman goddess of childbirth and the future. Present when child born head first. See also Postvorta.The Camenae. Aspect of Carmenta. Conception, childbirth and childcare. Indigitamenta[3].
FemalePostverta
Apollo / Phoebus / Apollo Phoebus
Roman god of the sun (rides the sun). Roman god of healing, medicine, music and poetry.
  • 6-13 July Ludi Apollinares games.
  • 14-19 July Ludi Apollinare games, markets and fairs.
  • 23 September temple of Apollo (and Latona) rededication anniversary.
Di selecti[1] (1 of 20 main Roman gods).MaleJupiter and LatonaDiana (twin), Vulcan, Minerva, Hercules, Bellona, Mars, Diana, Bacchusvarious
  • with Coronis: Aesculapius
  • with ? Janus
Apollo
Aesculapius
Roman god of healing and medicine, truth and prophecy.1 January festival to Aesculapius for new year prosperity.Demi-godMaleApollo and Coronis (mortal)
SalusAsclepius / Asklepios
Aurora / Mater Matuta
Virgin Roman goddess of dawn and matrons.11 June Matralia festival with offerings for blessings on children at Mater Matuta’s temple.Latin godFemaleSol, LunaTithonus (mortal prince of Troy)Eos
Averruncus / Auruncus
Roman divine personification of averting harmAbstract deity[4].Male
Bacchus / LiberRoman god of agriculture, fertility and wine (parties/festivals, madness and merriment).
  • 17 March Liberalia festival to Liber / Bacchus.
  • 25 December Brumalia winter solstice festival honoring Bacchus, Saturn, Ceres which  consisted of feasting and merriment.

Bacchus was associated with Bacchanalia Roman festivals.

Aspect of LiberMaleJupiter and SemeleVulcan, Minerva, Hercules, Bellona, Apollo, Diana, ApolloDionysus
BellonaRoman goddess of war.3 June temple of Bellona anniversary.Deified mortal.FemaleJupiter and JunoMars, Vulcan, Minerva, Hercules, Apollo, Diana, Bacchus, Discordia, Juventas, Lucina, etc.
MarsEnyo
Bona Dea
“Good goddess”
Roman goddess of chastity, fertility, prophecy for women, healing and the protection of individuals and the Roman state. Her “true” name was only know to herself.
  • 1 May temple of Bona Dea anniversary.
  • 3 December Bona Dea rites for women.
Fauni.FemaleFaunusFaunusFaunusDamia
Caelus
Roman god of the sky.Primordial god (Uranus).MaleEther and Dies (Day, Hemera in Greek)With Trivia: JanusUranus
Candelifera
Roman childbirth goddess that bears a candle during night time labor and possibly to ward off evil spirits by candlelight in the nursery.Childbirth and neonatel. Indigitamenta[3].Female
Castor and Pollux / Polydeuces
(aka Dioscuri “youths of Zeus” and the Gemini twins)
Roman and Greek gods of sailors, horsemanship and travelers.13 August temple anniversary to Castor and Pollux in the Circus Flaminius.Greek gods.Male
  • Caster: Tyndareus (King of Sparta) and Leda (Spartan queen)19* or Zeus and Leda1*
  • Pollux: Zeus and Leda1*
Castor and Pollox were twin half brothers. They also had twin sisters/half sisters:
  • Helen of Troy
  • Clytemnestra
 Castor and Pollux
Catius Pater
“Father Catius”
Roman god who protected boys and was invoked to sharpen the intellect of children.Childhood development. Indigitamenta[3].MaleTellusWith Tellus: Moneta
Cardea / Carda / Carna / Cranea / Cranaë
Roman goddess of the hinges of doorways. Specifically Carna was associated with building strong muscles and defending flesh and internal organs from strigea (witches).1 June festival to Carna.Childhood development. Nymph. Aspect of Juno.FemaleHelernus (maybe. According to Ovid Carna was born in Helernus’ sacred grove)Janus (in Ovid’s Fasti the nymph Cranaë is raped by Janus)
Carmena
Roman goddess that enabled children to sing.Childhood development. Aspect of Juno.Female
The Carmenae / The Casmenae
Prophetic Roman nymph goddesses of childbirth, fountains and wells. See also (The Muses). The Carmenae:
  • Antevorta
  • Postvorta
  • Carmenta / Carmentis
  • Egeria /Aegeria
13 August temple anniversary for the Camenae held on the Caelian Hill.The Camenae. Roman gods group.FemaleThe Muses
Carmenta / Carmentis (Nicostrate)
Roman goddess of childbirth and prophecy, technological innovation, protection of mothers and children.11 & 15 January Carmentalia feast days.Di flaminales[2]. The Camenae. Cimmerian Sibyl.FemaleMercuryEvander
CeresRoman goddess of the bounty (of growth and creation) including farming, agriculture, the harvest, fertility and motherly relationships.
  • 12-19 April Cerialia festival and games to Ceres with chariot racing on the last day.
  • May/June Ambarvalia 1 or 3 day festival to Ceres / Dea Dia by the Fratres Arvales preists.
  • 4 October Ieiunium Cereris fasting day in honor of Ceres.
  • 24 August first of three days the “mundus cerialis” (world of Ceres)” ritual pit was opened. Offerings were made to Ceres and other agricultural and underworld deities.
  • 5 October second opening of the “mundus” pit.
  • 8 November third opening of the “mundus” pit.
  • 13 December lectisternium (propitiatory meal offering ceremony) to Ceres.
  • 25 December Brumalia winter solstice festival honoring Saturn, Ceres and Bacchus consisting of feasting and merriment.
Dii Consentes (aka Di/Dei Consentes deities). Di flaminales[2]. Di selecti[1] (1 of 20 main Roman gods). Aventine Triad (Ceres, Liber, Libera).FemaleSaturn and Ops
Pluto / Dis Pater, Jupiter, Neptune, Juno, VestaDemeter
Cinxia / Virginiensis
Roman goddess that loosened the bride’s girdle after marriage so the groom could remove it after their wedding.Conception and pregnancy. Aspect of Juno.Female
Concordia
Roman goddess of concord (agreement and harmony) in marriage and society.
  • 5 February temple of Concordia anniversary.
  • 22 July temple of Concordia anniversary.
Abstract deity[4].FemaleHarmonia
Consevius / Consivius / Deus ConseviusRoman god of insemination and propagation.Conception and pregnancy. Aspect of Janus.Male
Consus
Roman god protector of grain and grain storage.
  • 7 July sacrifice to Consus by public priests.
  • 21 August Consualia festival parades and chariot races.
  • 12 December Consus festival.
  • 15 December Consualia festival parades and chariot races.
Agricultural god. Chthonic deity[6]. Tutelary deity[5].Male
Cuba
Roman goddess that helps a child transition from cradle to bed.Childhood development. Indigitamenta[3].Female
Cunina
Roman goddess that protects the cradle from malevolent magic.Childhood development. Indigitamenta[3].Female
Cupid / Amor
Roman god of erotic love, attraction and affection. Cupid is commonly depicted as a boy carrying a quiver of arrows. Cupid’s arrows could not only draw people together but also drive them apart.MaleMars and VenusPsycheWith Psyche: VoluptasEros
Cybele / Magna Mater
Roman “Great Mother” or mother of the Roman gods.
  • 15-28 March Hilaria festival to Cybele with religious rites.
  • 4-10 April Megalesia festival to Cybele with games and chariot racing on the last day.
Phrygian goddess.FemaleCybele
Dea Dia “divine goddess”
Dea means “goddess” and Dia means “divine” so Dea Dia is the divine Roman goddess of growth and fertility. Sometimes identified with Ceres.
  • May/June Ambarvalia 1 or 3 day festival to Ceres / Dea Dia by the Fratres Arvales preists.
Female
Dea Tacita “The silent goddess. mute goddess”
Roman goddess of the dead who sealed up hostile mouths and unfriendly tongues. Associated with Larunda.
  • 21 February Feralia festival to celebrate di Manes chthonic deities representing the souls of the deceased. Feralia was held on the last day of the Parentalia festival to remember ancesters. Rites in the name of Dea Tacita were also performed.
Muse (Carmenae). Di inferni. Di Manes. Chthonic deity[6].Female
Decima
Roman goddess who uses her rod to measure the thread of life at birth.The Parcae (the Fates. Greek: The Moirai). Conception and pregnancy.FemaleScotus and NoxMorta, NonaLachesis
DeverraRoman goddess who used a broom to sweep away evil influences and protect midwives and women in labor.Neonatel and childhood.Male
Diana (triple goddess)
Roman virgin goddess of childbirth and women. Diana was a triple goddess (Diana triformis) with history dating back to 6 BC. As Diana she was goddess of the hunt and wild animals, as Luna she was goddess of the moon and as Diana Trivia (Hecate) she was goddess of the underworld.13 or 15 August (around the full moon of August) Nemoralia “festival of torches” to Diana at the temple of Diana on the Aventine hill and in sacred grove next to Lake Nemi, near town of Ariccia.1 of 3 maiden goddesses along with Minerva and Vesta. Triad of Roman goddesses with Egeria and Virbius. Di selecti[1] (1 of 20 main Roman gods). Sabine goddess.FemaleJupiter and LatonaApollo (twin), Vulcan, Minerva, Hercules, Bellona, Mars, Diana, BacchusArtemis / Hecate
Dis Pater / Orcus
Roman god of the underworld.Di inferi. Chthonic deity[6].MaleSaturn and OpsJupiter, Neptune, Juno, Vesta, CeresProserpinaHades / Pluto
Dominduca
Roman goddess that accompanies children returning home. See also Interduca.Childhood development. Aspect of Juno.Female
Edusa / Edula / Edulia /Educa / Edesia
Roman goddess of teaching children to eat food and nourishment.Childhood development. Aspect of Juno.Female
Egeria / Aegeria
Roman minor nymph nature goddess associated with a place or land form.The Camenae. Aspect of Carmenta. Childbirth.
FemaleNuma Pompilius, (Second Sabine king of Rome).
Epona
Celtic-Roman goddess protector of horses, mares, ponies, donkeys, mules and fertility.18 December Eponalia in honor of Epona.Female
Evander of Pallene
Evander brought Greek culture to Italy including the Greek pantheon, alphabet and laws and was deified after his death. Evander founded the city of Pallantium on the site where Rome was built.15 February Lupercalia pastoral festival instituted by Evander in pre-Roman times.Deified Hero.MaleMercury and CarmentaPallasEvander
FabulinusRoman god who enables children to speak their first words.Di nixi /Nixae. Childhood development. Indigitamenta[3].Male
Farinus
Roman god that enables speech in children.Childhood development. Indigitamenta[3].Male
FaunusKing of Latium. Ancient horned (half man, half goat) Roman god of the forest, plains and fields. Roman god of prophecy.
  • 13 February festival for Faunus on Tiber island.
  • 15 February Pre-Roman Lupercalia festival (dies Februatus) to Faunus with offerings, sacrifices, feasting, a foot race and fertility rites which eventually became the Christian St. Valentine’s Day!
  • 5 December country festival for Faunus.
Fauni. Deified mortal. Woodland deity. Tutelary deity[5].MaleKing Picus (demi-god) and Canens (nymph)
FaunaFauna / Fatua, Marica (nymph), Bona Dea (as Dryad nymph)
  • With Marica: Latinus
  • With ?: Fauna
Pan
Febris “Fever”
Roman goddess who wards off and protects against fever.21 February Feralia festival to honor the gods of the underworld and souls of dead ancestors.Di inferi. Chthonic deity[6].Female
Februus “Purifier”
Roman god of god of purification, death and riches.21 February Feralia festival to honor the gods of the underworld and souls of dead ancestors.Etruscan god. Di inferi. Chthonic deity[6].Male
FeroniaRoman goddess of fertility, wildlife, abundance, health and granted freedom and/or civil rights to slaves.13 November festival in honor of Feronia.Sabine goddess. Abstract deity[4].Female
FidesRoman goddess of trust and good faith (bona fides).1 October ceremony for Fides.Sabine goddess.Female
Felicitas / Felicitas Augusta / Felicitas Fausta / Felicitas Publica / Felicitas Temporum
Roman goddess of woman’s fertility, good fortune and good luck in general.
  • 1 July temple anniversary to Felicitas at her temple on the Campus Martius.
  • 9 October rites at shrines on the Capitolium for Genius Publicus, Fausta Felicitas and Venus Victrix.
Female
FloraRoman goddess of youth, spring and flowers. One of several Roman fertility goddesses.
  • 27 April-3 May Ludi Florales (Flora games) to celebrate fertility with promiscuous activities and chariot racing on the last day.
  • 24 May (or mid July) Rosalia festival to honor Flora and commemorate the dead with flowers.
  • 13 August Flora temple anniversary near the Circus Maximus.
Di flaminales[2]. Sabine goddess.FemaleFavonius (God of the west wind).Chloris
Fluonia / Fluvionia
Roman goddess who holds back menstruation to allow conception.Conception and pregnancy. Indigitamenta[3].Female
Fontus / Fons
Roman god of flowing water, springs and wells.13 October Fontinalia religious festival in honor of Fons. Wells and fountains were decorated with garlands.Sabine god. Abstract deity[4].MaleJanus and JuturnaAithex, Canens, Tiberinus, OlisteneJuturna
Fornax
Roman goddess of ovens and baking of bread17 February festival.Female
Fortuna and epithets
Roman goddess of good fortune and the divine personification of luck.
  • 1 April Veneralia festival.
  • 5 April temple of Fortuna anniversary.
  • 25 May temple of Fortuna Primigenia anniversary.
  • 24 June Fors Fortuna festival with sacrifices.
  • 6 July Temple of Fortuna Muliebris anniversary.
  • 13 August Fortuna Equestris temple anniversary.
  • 3-12 October Augustalia (Augustus games) altar to Fortuna Redux.
  • 13 November festival in honor of Fortuna Primigenia.
Sabine goddess. Abstract deity[4].FemaleJupiterTyche
Furrina / FurinaRoman goddess of springs and bubbling water.25 July Furrinalia festival to Furrina.Di flaminales[2]Female
The Genii / Genius / Genius PublicusThe Genii are anonymous Roman gods and goddesses. Every person is followed by their own genius from birth until death. Most places and things have a genius and there are specific Genii “guardian spirits” including Genius Publicus Populi Romani who looked after the Roman people.9 October rites at shrines on the Capitolium for Genius Publicus, Fausta Felicitas and Venus Victrix.Di inferi.Male ( Aspect of Jupiter) / Female (Aspect of Juno)
Helernus / AlernusMinor Roman god of the beans used during the Lemuria festival.
  • 1 February Helernus sacred day. A black ox was sacrificed at his sacred grove near mouth of river Tiber.
  • 9/11/13 May Lemuria festival
Archaic Roman deity. Minor Chthonic deity[6]Male   Carna (maybe. She was born in Alernus’ sacred grove)
 
Hercules
Roman hero and, divinized by apotheosis to god.
  • 4 June restoration of Hercules Custos temple anniversary.
  • 29 June temple of Hercules Musarum anniversary.
  • 12 August sacrifice of a heifer (cow) to Hercules Invictus and offering from the skyphos (ritual 2 handled cup) of Hercules.
Deified Hero.MaleJupiter and Alcmene
Vulcan, Minerva, Mars, Bellona, Apollo, Diana, BacchusJuventasHeracles
HonosRoman god and personification of honor. Normally depicted with Virtus and honored together at the temple of Honos and Virtus.
  • 29 May Honos and Virtus temple anniversary.
  • 17 July temple of Honos and Virtus anniversary and sacrifice to Victoria.
  • 19 July festival to Honos
  • 12 August Venus Victrix temple anniversary and festival to Honos and Virtus, Felicitas and possibly Vesta.
Abstract deity[4].MaleArete
Innus / Mutunus Tutunus
Roman phallic god of sexual penetration and urge to mate.Conception and pregnancy.Male
Invidia
Roman goddess of jealousy, divine retribution and envy.Di inferi. The Dirae.FemalePhthonus
Intercidona
Roman goddess who protects the mother and newborn child against Silvanus the forest god.Neonatel and childhood.Female
Interduca
Roman goddess that accompanies children leaving the house. See also Domiduca.Childhood development. Aspect of Juno.Female
JanusRoman god of gates, doorways endings, beginnings, time, transition, duality and passages. Janus “opened up access to the generative seed” provided by Saturn. January is named after Janus who is typically depicted with two faces, one looking forwards, the other backwards. As guardian of passages Janus is the gatekeeper between Heaven and Earth so always invoked first to ensure communication between gods and worshipers.
  • 1 January New Year Kalends.
  • 9 January Agonalia (religious) festival to Janus.
  • 17 March Agonalia festival to Janus.
  • 21st May Agonalia festival to Janus.
  • 11th December Agonalia festival to Janus.
  • 17 August Temple of Janus anniversary.
Di selecti[1] (1 of 20 main Roman gods). Italian god.MaleCaelus and Trivia (Greek: Uranus and Hecate) or primordial deities Ether and DiesCameseCamese, Juturna, Venilia
  • With Venilia: Canens
  • With Juturna: Fontus
  • With Camese: Aithex, Olistene, Tiberinus
none
Jugatinus
Roman god of marriage and conjugal matters.Conception and childbirth.Male
Juno / Luno / Iovino / Iuno Regina “Queen Juno”
Juno was the Roman goddess of the sky, childbirth, marriage and beginnings. Protector and counselor of the Roman state. When Juno touched a magical herb she became pregnant and gave birth to Mars.
  • 1 July temple of Juno Felicitas anniversary.
  • 1 September ceremonies for Juno Regina on the Aventine and Jupiter Tonans “the Thunderer” on the Capitolium.
Di selecti[1] (1 of 20 main Roman gods). Capitoline Triad (Jupiter, Juno, Minerva).FemaleSaturnPluto / Dis Pater, Neptune, Jupiter,Vesta, CeresJupiterMars, Vulcan, Bellona, JuventasHera
Juno Moneta
Roman goddess responsible for protecting money and funds in general.
  • 1 June temple of Juno Moneta anniversary.
  • 10 October temple of Juno Moneta re-dedication.
Aspect of Juno.Female
Jupiter / Jove / Lovis / Diespiter /Iupiter and epithets.
“Heavenly father” (King of Roman gods and goddesses)
Roman god of the sky, thunder and lightning and brings babies towards daylight. Anywhere lightning strikes is sacred to Jupiter. Later Jupiter also became a protector of the Roman people.
  • 13 January Ides festival to Jupiter.
  • 13 February Ides festival to Jupiter and first day of Parentalia festival in honor of family ancestors when a priestess of Vesta conducted a rite for the collective Di Parentes of Rome.
  • 15 March Ides festival to Jupiter.
  • 1 April Veneralia wine festival to Jupiter and Venus.
  • 13 April temple of Jupiter Victor anniversary.
  • 23 April Vinalia Priora wine festival to Jupiter and Venus.
  • 15 May Ides festival to Jupiter.
  • 13 June Ides festival to Jupiter.
  • 27 June temple of Jupiter Stator anniversary.
  • 5 July Poplifugia festival to Jupiter.
  • 15 July Ides festival to Jupiter.
  • 13 August Ides festival to Jupiter.
  • 19 August Vinalia Rustica wine harvest festival to Jupiter and Venus.
  • 5 September Jupiter Stator temple anniversary.
  • 5-19 September Ludi Romani (Roman games) festival.
  • 13 September Ides festival and temple to Jupiter Optimus Maximus anniversary. Epulums (ritual feasts) to Jove and the Capitoline Triad.
  • 7 October rites for Juno Curitis and Jupiter Fulgur “daytime lightning”.
  • 11 October Meditrinalia festival in honor of the new wine vintage offered to Roman gods Jupiter (in his guise of wine god) and Meditrina.
  • 15 October Ides festival to Jupiter.
  • October 26-1 November Ludi Victoriae Sullanae games in honor of Jupiter.
  • 1 November Ludi circenses (Roman circus races) in honor of Jupiter.
  • 4-17 November Ludi Plebeii (Plebeian Games) in honor of Jupiter.
  • 13 November Ides festival to Jupiter and Epulum (ritual feast) to Jupiter.
Capitoline Triad (Jupiter, Juno, Minerva). Archaic Triad. Di flaminales[2].Di selecti[1] (1 of 20 main Roman gods). Childbirth. Deified mortal (Sol Indiges).MaleSaturn and OpsPluto / Dis Pater, Neptune, Juno, Vesta, Ceres
Juno, Moneta
  • With Juno: Vulcan, Minerva, Mars, Bellona
  • With Dione: Venus
  • With Latona: Apollo, Diana
  • With Maia: Mercury
  • With Semele: Bacchus
  • With Ceres: Prosperina
  • With Alcmene: Hercules
  • With Moneta: The Muses
  • Possibly: Invidia, Lucina
Zeus
Dius FidiusRoman god of oaths, loyalty and justice.
  • June 5 temple of Dius Fidius anniversary.
  • 1 September ceremonies for Juno Regina on the Aventine and Jupiter Tonans “Thunderer” on the Capitolium.
  • 7 October rites for Juno Curitis and Jupiter Fulgur “daytime lightning”.
Associated with Jupiter Fidius.Male
Justitia / Justice / Iustitia / Lustitia
Roman goddess of justice, sometimes called “Lady Justice”. Typically depicted in Western cultures with sword and scales, often blindfolded symbolizing “Blind Justice”.8 January: Sacred day for JusticiaAbstract deity[4].FemaleJupiter
Pax
Dike and Themis
JuturnaRoman goddess of fountains, wells and springs. Identified with a spring in Latium and a pool near the temple of Vesta in the Forum of Rome.
  • 11 January Juturnalia temple anniversary.
  • 27 August Volturnalia festival.
Naiad water nymph.FemaleVolturnusTurnus (King of the Rutili)Janus, JupiterWith Janus: Fontus
Juventas / Lucentus
Roman goddess of youth and rejuvenation.FemaleHerculesHebe
Larenta / Larunda / Larunde / Laranda / Lara / Acca Larentia / Acca Larentina / Lupa
Municipal goddess of Larentum who was imported as a Roman earth goddess following its conquest.23 December Larentalia sacrifices were offered to the Lares at the temples of Diana and Juno Regina in the Circus Flaminius and the Tempestates. Offerings were presented to Lara in a mundus (pit).Naiad. Di inferi. Chthonic deity[6].FemaleMercury
Levana
Ancient Roman goddess that symbolically “lifts” the baby from Mother Earth for the midwife to cut the umbilical cord.Childbirth.Female
Liber / Liber Pater / Bacchus
“Father Liber”
Roman god of viticulture, wine, freedom and fertility (release of semen).
  • 17 March Liberalia festival to Liber / Bacchus.
  • 5 September Mammes vindemia wine festival (originally to Greek god Dionysus)
Aventine Triad (Ceres, Liber, Libera). Di selecti[1]. Conception and childbirth. Deified mortal.MaleDionysus / Bacchus
LiberaRoman goddess of wine, freedom and fertility (contributing semina “seed”). Often combined with Proserpina.17 March Liberalia festival to Libera.Aventine Triad (Ceres, Liber, Libera). Conception and childbirth. Deified mortal.FemaleCeresLiber
LocutiusRoman god who enables children to form sentences.Childhood development. Indigitamenta[3].Male
Lucina / Juno Lucina
Roman goddess of childbirth and childhood development. Lucina introduces babies to the light.1 March Matronalia festival.Di nixi /Nixae. Sabine goddess. Childbirth and childhood development. Indigitamenta[3].FemaleJupiterEileithyia
LunaRoman goddess of the moon. See also Anna Perenna.
  • 31 March temple of Luna anniversary.
  • 24 August sacrifices to Luna on the Graecostasis platform.
  • 28 August Circus Maximus games in honor of Sol and Luna.
Di selecti[1] (1 of 20 main Roman gods). Di inferi. Chthonic deity[6]. Sabine goddess.FemaleAurora, SolSelene
Maia
Roman goddess of growth.
  • 1 May sacrifice day to Maia
  • 23 August Vulcanalia festival with sacrifices to Vulcan and goddesses Ops Opifera, Juturna, Maia, Hora and the water nymphs.

 

 

Adopted Greek goddess associated with earth goddesses Terra and Bona DeaFemaleAtlas and Pleione (Oceanid nymph) 
  • 7 Pleiades sisters (Atlantides):
    • Maia eldest
    • Electra
    • Taygete
    • Alcyone
    • Celaeno
    • Sterope/Asterope
    • Merope youngest
  • Calypso
  • Hyas
  • the Hyades
  • the Hesperides
JupiterMercuryMaia
Mania
Roman goddess of the dead and ruler of the underworld.11 May sacrifice day to Mania, possibly as part of the public Lemuralia ceremony.Di inferi. Chthonic deity[6].FemaleMantus
  • the Manes
  • the Lares
  • ghosts, restless spirits and undead
Mantus
Roman god of the dead and ruler of the underworld.Di inferi. Chthonic deity[6].MaleMania
Mars and epithetsMars is the Roman god of war.
  • 27 February and 14 March Equirria festivals (horse racing) to Mars.
  • 1 March, 19 March Feriae Marti (festival for Mars).
  • 17 March Agonalia (religious) festival.
  • 19-23 March Quinquatrus festival to Mars and Minerva.
  • 23 March Tubilustrium festival to Mars. War trumpets cleaned and priests of Mars danced on the streets.
  • 14 May Temple of Mars Invictus (Mars the Unconquered) anniversary.
  • 1 June temple of Mars on the clivus anniversary.
  • 13–15 June Quinquatrus minusculae festival to Mars and Minerva.
  • 15 October October Horse / Equus October festival with animal sacrifice to honor Mars. Two-horse chariot races on the Campius Martius.
  • 19 October Armilustrium (military festival) with trumpets, garlands for soldiers, rites, animal sacrifice and torches in honor of Mars.
Di selecti[1] (1 of 20 main Roman gods). Archaic Triad. Di flaminales[2]. Di inferi. Chthonic deity[6].MaleJuno Lucina and a magical herb or Jupiter and JunoVulcan, Minerva, Hercules, Bellona, Apollo, Diana, BacchusRhea Silvia / Ilia, Venus
  • With Rhea Silvia: Romulus and Remus (twins and founders of Rome.
  • with Venus: Cupid, Himerus, Formido, Pavor
Ares
Meditrina
Roman goddess of wine, health, longevity, healing and medicine.
  • 30 September Meditrinalia festival  to honor Meditrina as Roman goddess of medicine with fruits.
  • 11 October Meditrinalia festival in honor of the new wine vintage offered to Roman gods.

Jupiter (in his guise of wine god) and Meditrina.

FemaleAesculapius and EpioneAceso, Aglaea, Aratus, Hygieia, Iaso, Machaon, Panacea, Podaleirios, Telesphoros
Mena / Dea Mena
Roman goddess of menstrual flow.Conception and childbirth. Indigitamenta[3].Female
Mens Bona / Bona Mens /Mens “Good mind”
Roman goddess that gives a child consciousness and reasoning.8 June temple of Mens anniversary.Childhood development. Aspect of Juno.Female
MercuryRoman god of thieves, merchants, commerce and travelers. Mercury was the winged messenger of the Roman gods.15 May Mercuralia festival to Mercury.Di selecti[1] (1 of 20 main Roman gods). Etruscan god.MaleJupiterCarmentaEvanderHermes
MinervaRoman virgin goddess of wisdom, the arts and battle. Her patronage included learning, handicrafts, doctors, teachers, artists, strategic warfare, trade.
  • 19-23 March Quinquatrus festival to Mars and Minerva.
  • 13–15 June Quinquatrus minusculae festival to Mars and Minerva.
  • 19 June temple of Minerva on the Aventine anniversary.
  • 4 December Minerva festival.
Di selecti[1] (1 of 20 main Roman gods). Capitoline Triad (Jupiter, Juno, Minerva). Sabine goddess. 1 of 3 maiden goddesses along with Diana and Vesta.FemaleJupiter and MetisVulcan, Mars, Hercules, Bellona, Apollo, Diana, BacchusAthena / Athene
Moneta
Roman goddess of memoryFemaleCaelus and Tellus (Greek: Uranus and GaiaJupiterWith Jupiter: The MusesMnemosyne
Morta
Roman goddess of death who cuts the thread of life and chooses the manner of a person’s death. See also Parca.The Parcae (the Fates. Greek: The Moirai). Childbirth.FemaleScotus and Nox
Decima, NonaAtropos / Aisa
Nerio / Nerine
Roman goddess of war and personification of valor.23 March Tubilustrium as partner with Mars.Sabine goddess.Female  Mars  
Neptune / Neptunus
Roman god of the sea and water, and a god of fertility.
  • 23 July Neptunalia festival to Neptune celebrated by dock workers on the Tiber river with food and games.
  • 1 December temple ceremonies for Neptune.
Di selecti[1] (1 of 20 main Roman gods).MaleSaturn and OpsPluto / Dis Pater, Jupiter, Juno, Vesta, CeresDis Pater, JupiterPoseidon
Nona
Roman goddess that spin the thread of life from her distaff onto her spindle at birth.The Parcae (the Fates. Greek: The Moirai). Conception, pregnancy. Childbirth. Indigitamenta[3].FemaleScotus and NoxDecima, MortaClotho
NoxRoman goddess of the night.Primordial goddess (Nyx).FemaleNyx
Numeria
Roman goddess that taught children to count.Childhood development. Indigitamenta[3].Female
Ops/Opis / Ops Consiva / Ops Opifera “Plenty”
Roman goddess of the harvest and fertility. Associated with Consus.
  • 23 August Vulcanalia festival with sacrifices to Vulcan and goddesses Ops Opifera, Juturna, Maia, Hora and the water nymphs.
  • 25 August Opiconsivia end of harvest festival.
  • 19 December Opalia festival marking the storage of grain.
Chthonic deity[6]. Sabine goddess.FemaleCaelus, TerraSaturn, JanusSaturnDis Pater / Pluto, Jupiter, Neptune, Juno, Ceres, VestaRhea
Orcus / Dis Pater
Roman god of the underworld and punisher of broken oaths.Di selecti[1] (1 of 20 main Roman gods). Di inferi. Chthonic deity[6].MaleHades
Ossipago / Ossipagina / Ossilago / Opigena / Ossipango / OssipagaRoman goddess that builds strong bones.Childhood development. Indigitamenta[3].Female
PalatuaRoman teaching goddess of the Palatine Hill.Di flaminales[2].Female
Pales or Pales
Roman god or goddess of shepherds, flocks and livestock.
  • 21 April Parilia rustic festival and commemoration of the birthday of the city of Rome.
  • 7 July festival to the two Pales.
Sabine god.Male or Female
Partula
Roman goddess that oversees separation of the child from the mother and sets the limit of life. See also Morta.Conception and pregnancy. Childbirth. Indigitamenta[3].Female
PaxRoman goddess of peace and security. Pax is typically depicted holding an olive branch, a cornucopia and a scepter.3 January festivalChildhood development. Indigitamenta[3]. Abstract deity[4].FemaleJupiter and JustitiaIrene / Eirene
Paventia / Paventina
Roman goddess that distracts fear from children.Childhood development. Indigitamenta[3].Female
PetaRoman goddess who looks after a child’s first wants.Indigitamenta[3].Female
Picumnus / Sterquilinus “manure”/ Stercutus
Roman god of fertility, matrimony, infants, children and agriculture.Neonatel and childhood. Indigitamenta[3].MalePilumnus
Picus
Roman god of agriculture and manure. First king of Latium.Demi-godMaleSaturn and  ?? (mortal)CanensFaunus
Pietas
Roman goddess that cautioned humans against intrusion into the realm of the Roman gods.1 December temple ceremonies for Pietas.Abstract deity[4].Female
Pilumnus
Roman nature god who ensured children stayed healthy and grew properly.Neonatel and childhood. Indigitamenta[3].MalePicumnus
Pertunda
Roman goddess of sexual penetration.Conception and pregnancy. Indigitamenta[3].Female
PlutoRoman god of death and riches under the Earth. Pluto was originally a god of wealth and only later became associated with Hades, taking the role previously fulfilled by Dis Pater in Roman culture.MaleHades
PomonaRoman goddess of fruitful abundance, fruit trees, gardens, and orchards.13 August Pomona shared the Vertumnalia festival with Vertumnus.Di flaminales[2].FemaleVertumnus
PortunusRoman god of keys, doors, livestock and, later, ports.17 August Portunalia festival.Di flaminales[2]. Probably ancient Italian god.Male
Postvorta / Postverta / Prosa
Roman goddess of childbirth and the past. Present when child born feet first (breech birth). See also Antevorta.The Camenae. Aspect of Carmenta. Childbirth. Indigitamenta.
FemaleAntevorta
Potina / Potica / Bibesa
Roman goddess that enables a child to drink.Childhood development. Indigitamenta[3].Female
PotuaChildhood development. Indigitamenta[3].Female
Prema (dea Mater) / Prema mater
Roman mother goddess who causes the bride to be submissive on her wedding night.Conception and pregnancy. Indigitamenta[3].Female
Proserpina/ProserpineRoman goddess of springtime. Queen of the underworld. Proserpina was a fusion of Libera, Persephone and Demeter (Greek agricultural goddesses).
  • 17 March Liberalia festival to Libera.
  • 25 November sacred day to Prosperpina.
Di inferi. Chthonic deity[6].FemaleCeresDis Pater / Pluto
Persephone
Quirinus
Quirinus was a Sabine god of war. His altar, on one of the seven hills of Rome, was called the Quirinal. It was renamed for Romulus the founder and first king of Rome and Quirinus became one of the Roman gods of state associated with myrtle.17 February Quirinalia festival to honor Quirinus by the high priest, the Flamen Quirinalis.Di flaminales[2]. Archaic Triad. Sabine god.Male
Robigus
Roman god of rust and agricultural disease.25 April Robigalia festival to avert crop failure with prayer, sacrifice and chariot racing.Male
Roma
Roman personification of the city of Rome and the Roman state.21 April Paralia/Romeae festival to celebrate the official date for the founding of Rome, by Romulus, on 21 April 753 BCE.State deity. Abstract deity[4].Female   
SalaciaRoman goddess of salt water who presided over the ocean depths and was the personification of calm and sunlit seas.23 July Neptunalia festival with Neptune.Sea nymph.FemaleNeptuneTriton (half man, half fish)Amphitrite
Salus (Salus Semonia)Roman goddess of safety and well-being (welfare, health and prosperity) of individuals and the state.
  • 1 January New Year Day sacrifice to temple of Jupiter.
  • 5 August offerings and public sacrifice at the temple of Salus.
Sabine goddess. Abstract deity[4].FemaleAesculapiusHygieia
Saturn / Saturnus
(King of the titans)
Roman god of generation/sowing, plenty, wealth, agriculture, dissolution, renewal, liberation and the Roman god of time over mortals and immortals.
  • 17-23 December Saturnalia festival including feasting, gift-giving, gambling, wearing of the Pilleus (felt hat) public sacrifice and a banquet to honor Saturn.
  • 23 December The last day of Saturnalia was called Sigillaria where wax/pottery figurines were given as gifts.
  • 25 December Brumalia winter solstice festival honoring Saturn, Ceres and Bacchus consisting of feasting and merriment.
Di selecti[1] (1 of 20 main Roman gods). Sabine god.MaleCaelus and Terra Mater
Janus, OpsOpsDis Pater/Pluto, Jupiter, Neptune, Picus, Juno, Ceres, Vesta
Chronos
Scotus
Roman god of darkness.Primordial god.MaleErebus
Securitas
Roman goddess of security and stability both personal and of Rome.Abstract deity[4].Female
SentiaRoman goddess who gives sentience (thought and senses) to the unborn child.Conception and pregnancy. Indigitamenta[3].Female
Sentinus
Roman god who gives sentience (thought and senses) to the unborn child.Conception and pregnancy. Indigitamenta[3].Male
Statina / Statilina / Statinus / Statilinus
Roman goddess who gives the baby “fitness” in order that the father accepts responsibility to raise the child.Childbirth. Indigitamenta[3].Female
Sol / Sol Indiges / Sol Invictus
Roman Sun god. The personifications are used inconsistently with much disagreement among scholars:
  • Sol Indiges “Native / Invoked sun”, probably earliest.
  • Sol Invictus “Unconquered Sun”.

Sol’s origins lie in Mesopotamian mythology. Helios is most closely associated with Sol Invictus.

  • 9 August public sacrifice at the Quirinal to Sol Indiges.
  • 28 August Circus Maximus games in honor of Sol and Luna.
  • 11 December Agonalia (religious) festival for Sol Indiges.
Di selecti[1] (1 of 20 main Roman gods). Sabine god. Deified mortal (Sol Indiges).MaleAurora, LunaHelios
Somnus
Roman god of sleep.MaleNox (Greek: Nyx)Hypnos
SpesRoman goddess of hope.1 August temple of Spes anniversary.Abstract deity[4].FemaleElpis
Subigus / Subigus pater
Roman god who causes the bride to submit (sexually) to her husband.Conception and pregnancy. Indigitamenta[3].Male
SummanusRoman god of nocturnal thunder.20 June temple of Summanus anniversary.Sabine god. Di inferi. Chthonic deity[6].Male
Terminus
Roman god of boundary markers. 
  • 23 February Terminalia festival in honor of Terminus. where farmers agreed borders and made sacrifices to ward off evil.
  • 24 February Regifugium festival to Terminus marking the expulsion of the last king of Rome.
Sabine god.Malenone
Tellus Mater / Tellus / Terra Mater “Mother Earth”
Roman goddess of Mother Earth and fertility.
  • 15 April Fordicidia fertility festival and games.
  • 8 December festival for Gaia.
  • 13 December temple of Tellus anniversary.
Di selecti[1] (Tellus was 1 of 20 main Roman gods). Primordial goddess (Gaia). Abstract deity[4].FemaleCaelusWith Caelus: MonetaGaia
Tiberinus Pater / Father Tiber
Roman river god of the Tiber river.
  • June 7 Ludi Piscatorii “Fishermen’s Games”.
  • 8 December festival for Tiberinus Pater.
  • 17 August Tiberinalia festival to Father Tiber.
GeniusMaleOceanus and TethysAithex, Canens, Fontus, OlisteneRhea Silvia / Ilia
Trivia
(Queen of Ghosts)
Roman goddess of sorcery, witchcraft, haunted graveyards and crossroads.Di inferi. Chthonic deity[6].FemaleWith Caelus: JanusHecate
VagitanusRoman god who opened the newborn’s mouth to cry.Di nixi /Nixae. Childbirth. Indigitamenta[3].Male
Vejovis / Vediovis / Vejove / VedovusRoman god of healing and medicine. One of the first gods in the world.
  • 1 January festival to Vejovis.
  • 7 March festival to Vejovis.
  • 21 May festival to Vejovis.
Sabine god. Di inferi. Chthonic deity[6].MaleAsclepius
Venus / Venus Victrix / Venus Genetrix
Roman goddess of love and beauty.
  • 1 April Veneralia wine festival to Jupiter and Venus.
  • 23 April Vinalia Priora wine festival to Jupiter and Venus.
  • 19 August Vinalia Rustica wine harvest festival to Jupiter and Venus.
  • 26 September temple of Venus Genetrix anniversary.
  • 9 October rites at shrines on the Capitolium for Genius Publicus, Fausta Felicitas and Venus Victrix.
Di selecti[1] (1 of 20 main Roman gods).FemaleJupiter and Dione
Mars, Vulcan, Aeneas (mortal)
  • with Anchises (mortal): Aeneas
  • with Mars: Cupid, Himerus, Formido, Pavor
Aphrodite
VeritasRoman goddess of truth.Female
Vertumnus / Vortumnus / Vertimnus
Roman god of the seasons, gardens, plant growth, fruit trees and change.13 August Vertumnalia festival shared with Pomona.Etruscan god (probably)MalePomona
Vesper
Roman god of the evening star.MaleHesperus
VestaRoman virgin goddess of home and hearth.13-21 February Parentalia festival in honor of family ancestors. On the opening day (the Ides of February) a preistess of Vesta conducted a rite for the collective Di Parentes of Rome at the tomb of Tarpeia.Di selecti[1]. 1 of 3 maiden goddesses along with Diana and Minerva.
7-15 June Vestalia religious festival (apart from 9 June which was non-religious “dies religiosus”).
FemaleSaturn and OpsPluto / Dis Pater, Neptune, Jupiter, Juno, CeresHestia
Victoria
Victoria was the Roman goddess of victory and triumph over death. Other goddesses were indentified with Victoria:
  • Dispiter was an earlier Roman goddess.
  • Vacuna was an earlier Sabine goddess.
  • 17 July temple of Honos and Virtus anniversary and sacrifice to Victoria.
  • 20 July, Ludi Victoriae Caesari (Roman games)
  • 1 August Victoria temple anniversary on the Palatine hill.
  • 26 October to 1 November Ludi Victoriae Sullanae (Sulla’s Victory games).
Abstract deity[4]. Adapted from Sabine goddess.FemalePallas (Greek) and Styx (Greek)Nike
Virtus
Roman god of bravery and military strength, normally depicted, and honored together with Honor, at the temple of Honos and Virtus.
  • 29 May Honos and Virtus temple anniversary.
  • 17 July temple of Honos and Virtus anniversary and sacrifice to Victoria.
  • 12 August Venus Victrix temple anniversary and festival to Honos and Virtus, Felicitas and possibly Vesta.
MaleArete
Vitula
Roman goddess of joy and celebration (of victories)8 July Vitulatio festival.Female
Vitumnus
Roman god who endows the fetus with life.Conception and pregnancy.Male
Volumnus / Volumna
Roman goddess that instills the will to do good in children.Childhood development. Indigitamenta[3].Female
Voluptas / Volupta
Roman goddess of sensual pleasure or delight and to drive away the sorrow and chagrin of life.the Gratiae (The Graces / The Charities).FemaleCupid and PhycheHedone
VolturnusRoman god of god of the river Tiber, fountains and waters.27 August Volturnalia sacrifice to Volturnus festival.Di flaminales[2]. Etruscan deity.MaleJuturnaEurus
Vulcan / Vulcanus / Mulciber
Roman god of fire, blacksmiths, metalworking and volcanoes. Vulcan was often a symbol of male fertility. Vulcan later became identified with Greek smith god Hephaestus and became the god of smithing. In Greek mythology Hephaistos forged thunderbolts for Zeus, in Roman mythology Vulcan provided the bolts for Jupiter.
  • 23 May Tubilustria purification of trumpets ceremony.
  • 23 August Vulcanalia festival with sacrifices to Vulcan and goddesses Ops Opifera, Juturna, Maia, Hora and the water nymphs.
Di selecti[1] (1 of 20 main Roman gods). Di flaminales[2]. Sabine god.MaleJupiter and JunoMars, Minerva, Hercules, Bellona, Apollo, Diana, BacchusVenus, Maia, Aetna (nymph), Aglaea / Charis
Hephaestus

Notes and FAQ about ADDucation Roman Gods & Goddesses A to Z list:

  • Notes: [1] Di selecti: 20 main Roman gods. [2] Di flaminales: 15 Roman gods with devoted flamens (priests, plural “flamines”). The Rex Sacrorum[17] “king of the sacred” was officially the highest position in Roman state religion, followed by the three flamines maiores: Flamen Dialis (Jupiter), Flamen Martialis (Mars), Flamen Quirinalis (Quirinus), then the Pontifex Maximus[18] “greatest priest” (who actually had the most power) then the 12 flamines minores. [3]Indigitamenta: Roman deities primarily known by name alone, or as an epithet of a major god or a minor entity. ies, or epithets of major gods. The College of Pontiffs maintained the indigitamenta list to ensure the correct names were invoked in public prayers. [4] Abstract deity: Divine personification of a virtue which can be invoked in prayer or used as an epithet “byname/nickname”. [5] Tutelary deity: Guardian/protector or patron of specific places, people and occupations. [6]Chthonic deity: Underworld “subterranean” god/goddess or spirit.
  • This list of Roman deities is primarily compiled from the works of Roman scholar Marcus Terentius Varro (116-27 BC) and Roman poet Ovid (43 BC ~ 17 AD) and other Roman historians.
  • Roman mythology has many conflicting stories so this table of Roman goddesses and gods and their Greek equivalents will always be a work in progress. Please use the comments area to help us resolve issues and improve the list.
  • Interestingly the Romans considered odd numbers lucky which is why almost all the Roman festivals and temple anniversaries were held on odd-numbered days.

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