Roman Mythology Groups
Roman Mythology Groups Collective Names for Roman Deities
List of Roman mythology groups including the group names of mythological Roman gods and goddesses with meanings. Additionally for individual Roman deities visit ADDucation’s list of Roman Gods and Goddesses.
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|Roman Grouping||Roman Deities||Connections||Gender||Greek Equivalent||Roman Mythology Groups|
|Archaic triad||The Archaic Roman gods are:||Archaic deity.||Male||none||The Archaic triad deities were the original three Roman deities worshiped on the Capitoline Hill in Rome by the flamines maiores (Rome’s ruling class families).|
|Aventine triad / Plebeian triad||The Plebeian / Aventine deities:||Agricultural deities. Fertility deities.||both||none||The Aventine triad was a cult of the Roman deities Ceres, Liber and Libera established around 493 BC in the Aventine Hill area of Rome associated with the Roman plebs shortly after the Roman monarchy was overthrown by the Roman republic.|
|Capitoline triad||The old/original Capitoline Triad of Roman deities were:|
The new Capitoline Triad Roman deities were:
|both||none||The Capitoline Triad consisting of Jupiter and his companion deities Juno and Minerva were the three Roman deities worshiped in Jupiter Optimus Maximus temple on Rome’s Capitoline Hill. The lesser known original Capitoline Triad was an all-male affair with Quirinus and Mars instead of Juno and Minerva. Temples honoring the Capitoline Triad were built in other cities and Roman provinces.|
|The Carmenae / The Casmenae||Carmenae Roman goddesses list:||Female||The Muses||The Camenae were prophetic Roman water nymph goddesses of childbirth, fountains and wells.|
|Di Consentes / Dii Consentes / Dei Consentes / Dii Complices||List of Di consentes Roman gods:|
List of Di consentes Roman goddesses:
|Di selecti.||both||Twelve Olympians||Di Consentes were the twelve major Roman gods that made up the Roman Council of 12 gods in the pantheon of Ancient Rome. The senate ordered statues organized into six male/female pairs arranged on six sofas to boost public morale in the face of Hannibal’s army marching to attack the city of Rome. Livy organizes the twelve deities into couples as follows:|
There are earlier references to groups of twelve deities in Greek mythology, Anatolian, Lycian, Hittite, Etruscan and Egyptian cultures.
|Di Flaminales||Roman deities were cultivated by Flamens (priests). The flamen maior (major priests) were:|
Roman deities attended by the minor Flamens (minor priests):
|Major flamens. Minor flamens.||Both||A Flamen was a priest assigned to a deity. Flamens were appointed by the Pontifical College to each of the fifteen official Roman cults. Three major Flamens, who had to be patricians from one of Rome’s ruling families, were appointed to the archaic triad deities Jupiter, Mars and Quirinus. The other twelve deities were each assigned a minor Flamen, who could be a patrician or a pleb, of which two deities and Flamens remain unknown. A major Flamen was assigned to Julius Caesar when he was deified as divus (god) of the Roman state.|
|Di inferi||Di inferi is the collective name for the chthonic (underworld) deities which includes other Roman mythology groups of chthonic deities including:|
The following deities are associated with di inferi:
Mania Roman goddess of death
|both||Di inferi is the collective name for chthonic (underworld) deities “those who dwell below”.|
|Di Manes “good ones”||Di inferi. Di Penates. The Lares. The Lemures. Genii.||both||Di Manes are chthonic (underworld) deities representing the souls of the deceased. Di Manes, together with other groups of chthonic deities, are known collectively as di inferi.|
|Di Nixi /Nixae||Di Nixi birth deities included:||Di nixi were Roman birth deities.|
|Di Penates||Di inferi. Associated with Genii (Genius of the paterfamilias), The Lares, The Lemures.||both||none||Di Penates are chthonic (underworld) Roman household deities (domestic deities) and protectors of the house, storeroom/larder and family life. Di Penates are associated with Vesta, the Lares and the Genius of the paterfamilias “domestic universe”. Early Romans worshiped Di Penates with offerings before meals and images on walls and furniture. Di Penates protected the interests of the state and its peoples.|
|Di selecti||Di selecti deities:||both||none||List of the 20 main Roman gods and goddesses.|
|the Dirae / the Furies||Dirae goddesses:||Di inferi.||female||The Erinyes / the Furies||The Dirae / Furies were Roman goddesses of vengeance that listened to complaints from mortals and punished the culprits by tormenting them to death. The Dirae often accompanied Invidia, the Roman goddess of vengeance and divine retribution. The Dirae were daughters of Terra Mater (Mother earth), conceived by Uranus.|
|The Genii / Genius||Di inferi.||both||none||The Genii are anonymous chthonic (underworld) Roman gods and goddesses. Every person is followed by their own genius from birth until death. Most places and things have a genius and there are specific Genii “guardian spirits” including Genius Publicus Populi Romani who looked after the Roman people. The Genii, with other groups of chthonic deities, are collectively referred to as di inferi.|
|The Gratiae / The Graces||Di inferi.||Female||The Charities||The Gratiae were minor chthonic (underworld) Greek goddesses of beauty, charm, creativity, nature and fertility adopted into Roman mythology. In some accounts Charis is a separate goddess rather than the singular form of the Charities. The Gratiae are chthonic (underworld) Roman household deities and protectors of the house and storeroom. Di Penates, with other groups of chthonic deities, are collectively referred to as di inferi. Please refer to our Greek mythology Groups list for other goddesses associated with the Charities.|
|Indigitamenta||Agricultural deities. Functional deities. Conception, childbirth and childcare deities.||The College of Pontiffs maintained lists of deities, called Indigitamenta, to be invoked for public prayers. This list assumes the Indigitamenta refers to separate minor deities rather than epithets relating to an aspect of a major deity |
|The Lares||The Lares were often unnamed and invoked with other deities. Named Lares include:|
Lares Privati / Lares Private
Lares Publici / Lares Public:
|Di inferni.||none||Lar or Lares were either deified ancestor or spirits of fertility. The Lares were guardians of the family’s flocks and fields along with locations and specific functions. Every Roman family had a lararium (shrine) where offerings were made to their family Lares, Penates and Vesta. The Lares were typically depicted as dancing youths, with a bowl in one hand and a horn shaped cup in the other. Mania is the mother of the Lares and Nanes, the gods of the household.|
|The Lemures||The Lemures were formless wandering or restless spirits of the dead.||Di inferni.||The Lemures were potentially vengeful or malevolent dead and actively appeased during the Lemuralia Roman festival.|
|The Muses||List of nine Roman muses (adopted from Greek mythology):||The Carmenae.||Female||The Muses||The Muses were daughters of Jupiter and Mnemosyne and adopted from the Greek goddesses of the arts, literature and sciences with the same names. See also the Carmenae, one of the associated Roman mythology groups.|
|The Parcae / Parca / the Fates||List of Parcae goddesses:||Female||The Moirai:||The Parcae goddesses control the destiny of mortals and gods.|
|The Venti (winds)||List of Venti Roman wind gods:||Di indigetes.||Male||The Anemoi||The Venti lived at the origin of their respective winds. Corus was one of di indigetes (indigenous gods) that were not adopted from other religions.|
Notes and FAQ about ADDucation’s Roman Mythology Groups:
- This list is primarily compiled from the works of Roman scholar Marcus Terentius Varro (116-27 BC) and Roman poet Ovid (43 BC ~ 17 AD) and other Roman historians.
-  This ADDucation list is based on the Wilhelm Heinrich Roscher (1845-1923) list of Roman Indigitamenta making the assumption each deity is a separate minor entitiy rather than an epithet relating to an aspect of a major deity.
-  Arval Brothers Acta Arvalia marble tablet records.
-  Lives (Titus Livius Patavinus, 64 or 59 BCE and 12 or 17 CE) Roman historian in Founding of the City, Book XXII.10.
- Roman mythology has many conflicting stories so this table of Roman mythology groups will always be a work in progress. Please use the comments area to help us resolve issues and improve the list.
ADDucation Lists Related to Roman Mythology Groups:
- Greek Mythology: Mega A to Z list of Greek Gods and Goddesses…
- A-Z List of Greek Mythology Groups…
- Greek Mythology Creation Story (The Romans basically adopted the Greek creation myth and changed the names)
- Finally, have you spotted a mistake in our Roman mythology groups list? Have we missed any Roman mythology groups? Please let us know by adding your comments below…