roman mythology groups

Roman Mythology Groups 👪

Roman Mythology Groups 👪 Collective Names for Roman Deities

List of Roman mythology groups including the group names of mythological Roman gods and goddesses with meanings. Additionally for individual Roman deities visit ADDucation’s A-Z list of Roman Gods and Goddesses.

  • Roman mythology groups is compiled by Joe Connor and last updated Nov 7, 2022 @ 11:08 am

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Roman Grouping Roman Deities Connections Gender Greek Equivalent Roman Mythology Groups
Archaic triad The Archaic Roman gods are:
  • Jupiter
  • Mars
  • Quirinus.
Archaic deity Male none The Archaic triad deities were the original three Roman deities worshiped on the Capitoline Hill in Rome by the flamines maiores (Rome’s ruling class families). One of the best known Roman mythology groups.
Aventine triad / Plebeian triad The Plebeian / Aventine deities:
  • Ceres
  • Liber
  • Libera.
Agricultural deities. Fertility deities. both none The Aventine triad was a cult of the Roman deities Ceres, Liber and Libera established around 493 BC in the Aventine Hill area of Rome associated with the Roman plebs shortly after the Roman monarchy was overthrown by the Roman republic.
Capitoline triad The old/original Capitoline Triad of Roman deities were:
  • Jupiter
  • Mars
  • Quirinus.

The new Capitoline Triad Roman deities were:

  • Jupiter
  • Juno
  • Minerva.
both none The Capitoline Triad consisting of Jupiter and his companion deities Juno and Minerva were the three Roman deities worshiped in Jupiter Optimus Maximus temple on Rome’s Capitoline Hill. The lesser known original Capitoline Triad was an all-male affair with Quirinus and Mars instead of  Juno and Minerva. Temples honoring the Capitoline Triad were built in other cities and Roman provinces. One of the best known Roman mythology groups.
The Carmenae / The Casmenae
Carmenae Roman goddesses list:
  • Antevorta
  • Postvorta
  • Carmenta / Carmentis
  • Egeria /Aegeria.
Female The Muses. The Camenae were prophetic Roman water nymph goddesses of childbirth, fountains and wells.  During the Carmentalia Roman festival on 11 January Carmenta was invoked as her epithets Antevorta and Postvorta to see into the future and past.
Di Consentes / Dii Consentes / Dei Consentes / Dii Complices List of Di consentes Roman gods:
  • Mars
  • Mercury
  • Jupiter
  • Neptune
  • Vulcan
  • Apollo.

List of Di consentes Roman goddesses:

  • Juno
  • Vesta
  • Minerva
  • Ceres
  • Diana
  • Venus.
Di selecti both Twelve Olympians. Di Consentes were the twelve major Roman gods that made up the Roman Council of 12 gods in the pantheon in Ancient Rome. The senate ordered statues organized into six male/female pairs arranged on six sofas to boost public morale in the face of Hannibal’s army marching to attack the city of Rome. Livy[3] organizes the twelve deities into couples as follows:
  • JupiterJuno
  • NeptuneMinerva
  • MarsVenus
  • ApolloDiana
  • VulcanVesta
  • MercuryCeres.

There are earlier references to groups of twelve deities in Greek mythology, Anatolian, Lycian, Hittite, Etruscan and Egyptian cultures. One of the best known Roman mythology groups.

Di Flaminales Roman deities were cultivated by Flamens (priests). The flamen maior (major priests) were:
  • Jupiter Flamen Dialis
  • Mars Flamen Martialis
  • Quirinus Flamen Quirinalis.

Roman deities attended by the minor Flamens (minor priests):

  • Carmentis Flamen Carmentalis
  • Ceres Flamen Cerialis
  • Falacer Flamen Falacer
  • Flora Flamen Floralis
  • Furrina Flamen Furrinalis
  • Palatua Flamen Palatualis
  • Pomona Flamen Pomonalis
  • Portunus Flamen Portunalis
  • Vulcan Flamen Volcanalis
  • Volturnus Flamen Volturnalis
  • Unknown deity: Flamen unknown
  • Unknown deity: Flamen unknown.
Major flamens. Minor flamens. both A Flamen was a priest assigned to a deity. Flamens were appointed by the Pontifical College to each of the fifteen official Roman cults. Three major Flamens, who had to be patricians from one of Rome’s ruling families, were appointed to the archaic triad deities Jupiter, Mars and Quirinus. The other twelve deities were each assigned a minor Flamen, who could be a patrician or a pleb, of which two deities and Flamens remain unknown. A major Flamen was assigned to Julius Caesar when he was deified as Divus (god) of the Roman state.
Di inferi Di inferi is the collective name for the chthonic (underworld) deities which includes other Roman mythology groups of chthonic deities including:
  • The Graces
  • Di Penates / The Lares / Lemures
  • The Genii
  • The Lares (souls of good men)
  • The Lemures / Larvae; souls of bad men, spirits of the restless dead
  • Di Manes; Diis Manibus (D.M.) “for the Manes” souls of deceased loved ones
  • The Dirae.

The following deities are associated with di inferi:

  • Dis / Dis pater presided over the afterlife with his wife Proserpina
  • Februus was an Etruscan god of purification and death who was absorbed into the Roman pantheon
  • Hecate or Trivia, aspect of the triple goddess with Luna and Proserpina
  • Libitina is one of the indigitamenta associated with death and the underworld
  • Mana Genita a minor chthonic goddess concerned with infant mortality
  • Mania Roman goddess of death
  • Larum mater “Mother of the Lares” minor goddess also associated with LarundaDea Tacita and Muta
  • Libitina is the Roman goddess of funerals and burial
  • Mors Roman personification of death
  • Nenia Dea Roman goddess of the funeral lament
  • Orcus is an archaic underworld god used for the underworld itself, like Hades in Greek mythology
  • Parca Maurtia / Morta is one of the Parcae who determines mortality
  • Proserpina is queen of the underworld with husband Dis pater
  • Soranus is a Roman underworld Sabine god adopted by the ancient Romans
  • Summanus is the Roman god of nocturnal thunder
  • Vediovis is a obscure archaic god
  • Viduus Roman god who separated the soul and body after death.
both Di inferi is the collective name for chthonic (underworld) deities “those who dwell below”.
Di Manes Di inferi. Di Penates. The Lares. The Lemures. Genii. both Di Manes are chthonic (underworld) deities representing the souls of deceased loved ones. Di Manes, together with other groups of chthonic deities, are known collectively as di inferi.
The Moles / Molae Moles Martis Indigitamenta both Personified to Mars as Moles Martis “Moles of Mars” from mola salsa (flour/salt) prepared by the Vestals and used during rituals. The Moles are unnamed by included in the indigitamenta.
Di Nixi /Nixae Di Nixi birth deities included:
  • Lucina brings children into the light
  • Vagitanus opened the newborn’s mouth to cry
  • Fabulinus enabled the child’s first articulate speech.
Di nixi were Roman birth deities.
Di Penates
Di Penates were household deities. The public deities were Di Penates of Rome (Penates Publici Populi Romani). Two Roman festivals in honor of Di Penates were held on 13 February and 14 October. Di inferi. Associated with Genii (Genius of the paterfamilias), The Lares, The Lemures. both none Di Penates are chthonic (underworld) Roman household deities (domestic deities) and protectors of the house, storeroom/larder and family life. Di Penates are associated with Vesta, the Lares and the Genius of the paterfamilias “domestic universe”. Early Romans worshiped Di Penates with offerings before meals and images on walls and furniture. Di Penates protected the interests of the state and its peoples. Di Penates were one of Roman mythology groups which had no equivalent in Greek mythology.
Di selecti Di selecti 20 Roman deities:
  • Apollo
  • Ceres
  • Diana
  • Genius
  • Janus
  • Juno
  • Jupiter
  • Liber
  • Luna
  • Mars
  • Mercury
  • Minerva
  • Neptune
  • Orcus
  • Saturn
  • Sol
  • Tellus
  • Venus
  • Vesta
  • Vulcan.
both none List of the 20 main Roman gods and goddesses. One of the best known Roman mythology groups.
The Dirae / The Furies.
Dirae Roman goddesses:
  • Alecto “unnameable”; anger, endless, punisher of moral crimes
  • Megaera “grudging”; jealous rage, punisher of theft, infidelity and oath breakers
  • Tisiphone “avenging murder”; vengeful destruction, punisher of murderers.
Di inferi female The Erinyes / the Furies. The Dirae / Furies were Roman goddesses of vengeance that listened to complaints from mortals and punished the culprits by tormenting them to death. The Dirae often accompanied Invidia, the Roman goddess of vengeance and divine retribution. The Dirae were daughters of Terra Mater (Mother earth), conceived by Uranus.
The Genii / Genius.
  • Genius Publicus Populi Romani.
Di inferi both none The Genii are anonymous chthonic (underworld) Roman gods and goddesses. Every person is followed by their own genius from birth until death. Most places and things have a genius and there are specific Genii “guardian spirits” including Genius Publicus Populi Romani who looked after the Roman people. The Genii, with other groups of chthonic deities, are collectively referred to as di inferi.
The Gratiae / The Graces.
  • Aglaea / Charis “Splendor” (youngest)
  • Euphrosyne “Mirth”
  • Thalia “Good Cheer”.
Di inferi Female The Charities. The Gratiae were minor chthonic (underworld) Greek goddesses of beauty, charm, creativity, nature and fertility adopted into Roman mythology. In some accounts Charis is a separate goddess rather than the singular form of the Charities. The Gratiae are chthonic (underworld) Roman household deities and protectors of the house and storeroom. Di Penates, with other groups of chthonic deities, are collectively referred to as di inferi. Please refer to our Greek mythology Groups list for other goddesses associated with the Charities.
  • Minor Roman functional deities:[2]
    • Adolenda deity of tree burning
    • Coinquenda deity of tree felling
    • Commolenda / Conmolanda deity of reducing tree to chips
    • Deferunda.
  • Minor Roman deities:
    • Aescolanus god of copper money, father of Argentinus
    • Afferenda goddess of offering dowries
    • Agonius
    • Aius Locutius
    • Arculus tutelary god of chests and strongboxes
    • Argentinus god of silver money, son of Aescolanus
    • Ascensus god of hillsides and sloping terrain
    • Aventinus
    • Bubona
    • Caeculus
    • Cardea
    • Cela
    • Clivicola
    • Coinquenda
    • Collatina
    • Coluber
    • Deverra
    • Domiduca
    • Domiducus
    • Domitius god who preserves the home of newlyweds
    • Edusa / Educa / Edula / Edulia
    • Fessona / Fessonia goddess who relieved weariness
    • Forculus protector of doors
    • Iana
    • Intercidona
    • Interduca
    • Lateranus
    • Levana
    • Libentina / Lubentina
    • Lima goddess of the threshold
    • Limentinus god of the threshold
    • Limi / Limones guardian spirits of Rome’s slopes and streets
    • Lucrii
    • Manturna conjugal goddess who causes a couple to stay together
    • Mellona
    • Mola
    • Montinus god of mountains
    • Mutunus Tutunus / Tutinus
    • Nemestrinus god of groves
    • Nenia
    • Odoria
    • Panda / Empanda
    • Pantica
    • Partula
    • Pellonia
    • Peragenor
    • Perfica
    • Peta
    • Picumnus
    • Pollentia
    • Praestana
    • Praestitia
    • Puta
    • Rediculus
    • Rumon
    • Rusina
    • Rusor
    • Semonia
    • Segetia
    • Septimontius
    • Serra
    • Spiniensis
    • Stata Mater
    • Sterquilinus
    • Stercutus
    • Stimula
    • Strenia
    • Tutanus
    • Unxia
    • Vallonia
    • Venilia
    • Verminus
    • Vica Pota
    • Victa
    • Viduus
    • Viriplaca
    • Voleta
    • Volumnus
    • Volupia
  • Minor Roman agricultural deities:
    • Altor
    • Conditor
    • Convector
    • Fructesea / Seia
    • Hostilina
    • Inporcitor
    • Insitor
    • Lactans
    • Lacturnus
    • Messia
    • Messor
    • Noduterensis
    • Nodutus
    • Obarator
    • Occator
    • Patella
    • Patellana
    • Promitor
    • Reparator
    • Runcina
    • Sarritor / Saritor
    • Sator
    • Segesta
    • Subruncinator
    • Tutilina
    • Vervactor
    • Volutina.
  • Roman deities of conception, childbirth and childcare:
    • Abeona
    • Adeona
    • Agenoria
    • Alemona
    • Antevorta
    • Candelifera
    • Catius pater
    • Cinxia
    • Cuba
    • Cunina
    • Fabulinus
    • Farinus
    • Fluvionia / Fluonia
    • Iuga
    • Iugatinus
    • Locutius
    • Lucina
    • Mena
    • Numeria
    • Nundina
    • Orbona
    • Ossipago
    • Paventina
    • Pertunda
    • Pilumnus
    • Porrima
    • Postverta / Postvortia
    • Potina
    • Potua
    • Prema mater
    • Prorsa
    • Rumina
    • Sentia
    • Sentinus
    • Statanus
    • Statilinus
    • Statina
    • Subigus pater
    • Vagitanus
    • Virginiensis
    • Vitumnus
    • Volumna.
Agricultural deities. Functional deities. Conception, childbirth and childcare deities. The College of Pontiffs maintained lists of deities, called Indigitamenta, to be invoked for public prayers. This list assumes the Indigitamenta refers to separate minor deities rather than epithets relating to an aspect of a major deity [1] and was compiled from Roscher’s list of indigitamenta.
The Lares. The Lares were often unnamed and invoked with other deities. Named Lares include:
Lares Privati / Lares Private:
  • Lares Familiares: Guardians of the family
  • Lares Domestici: Guardians of the house
  • Lares Patrii: Guardians of “dii patrii” (deified ancestors).

Lares Publici / Lares Public:

  • Lares Permarini / Lares Marini: Guardians of the sea and seafarers
  • Lares Rurales: Guardians of the land
  • Lares Compitales: Guardians of crossroads
  • Lares Compitalicii: Guardians of communities (vici).
  • Lares Viales: Guardians of travelers and roads
  • Lares Praestitis: Guardians of the state
  • Lares Rurales / Lares Arvale: Guardians of fields and agriculture
  • Lar Militaris / Military Lar: Cult groups include Mars, Jupiter and other major Roman deities
  • Lares Praestites “Lares who stand before”: Guardians of the city of Rome, the state or community
  • Lares of the eaves / Lares Grundules: 30 “grunting Lares” given a cult and altar by Romulus or Aeneas when a sow produced thirty piglets
  • Lares Augusti: Public lares of Augustus “August Lares”.
Di inferni none Lar or Lares were either deified ancestor or spirits of fertility. The Lares were guardians of the family’s flocks and fields along with locations and specific functions. Every Roman family had a lararium (shrine) where offerings were made to their family Lares, Penates and Vesta. The Lares were typically depicted as dancing youths, with a bowl in one hand and a horn shaped cup in the other. Mania is the mother of the Lares and Nanes, the gods of the household. The Lares were one of Roman mythology groups which had no equivalent in Greek mythology.
The Lemures  The Lemures were formless wandering or restless spirits of the dead. Di inferni The Lemures were potentially vengeful or malevolent dead and actively appeased during the Lemuralia Roman festival held on the 9th, 11th and 13th May.
The Muses List of nine Roman muses (adopted from Greek mythology):
  • Calliope (epic poetry)
  • Clioglory” (history)
  • Erato (love poetry)
  • Euterpe (lyrical poetry)
  • Melpomene (tragedy)
  • Polyhymnia (sacred poetry)
  • Terpsichore (dance)
  • Thalia (comedy and pastoral poetry)
  • Urania (astronomy).
The Carmenae Female The Muses. The Muses were daughters of Jupiter and Mnemosyne and adopted from the Greek goddesses of the arts, literature and sciences with the same names. See also the Carmenae, one of the associated Roman mythology groups.
The Parcae / Parca / the Fates
List of Parcae goddesses:
  • Nona “ninth” (the spinner) was the Roman goddess of pregnancy who spun the thread of life from her distaff “reel” onto her spindle. Nona was invoked in the ninth month of pregnancy
  • Decima (the allotter) measured and dispensed the length of the thread of life with her rod
  • Morta (the inevitable) was the Roman goddess of death who cut the thread of life determining the moment of death.
Female The Moirai:
  • Clotho
  • Lachesis
  • Atropos.
The Parcae goddesses were personified as three elderly women who spun the threads of human destiny including lifespan, misery and suffering and death. The Parcae may have been the daughters of primordial gods and certainly acted independently of Roman gods, like Jupiter, who feared them.
The Venti (winds). List of Venti Roman wind gods:
  • Aquilo / Aquilon / Septentrio (Roman god of the North wind and winter)
  • Vulturnus (Roman god of the East wind)
  • Auster (South wind)
  • Favonius “favorable” (Roman god of the West wind and spring)
  • Caecius (Northeast wind)
  • Apeliotus (Southeast wind)
  • Africus (Southwest wind)
  • Corus / Caurus (Northwest wind).
Di indigetes Male The Anemoi The Venti lived at the origin of their respective winds. Corus was one of di indigetes (indigenous gods) that were not adopted from other religions. One of the best known Roman mythology groups.

Related to Roman Groups: A-Z List of Roman Goddesses… | 365 day Roman Festivals Calendar…

Notes and FAQ about ADDucation’s Roman Mythology Groups:

  • This list is primarily compiled from the works of Roman scholar Marcus Terentius Varro (116-27 BC) and Roman poet Ovid (43 BC ~ 17 AD) and other Roman historians
  • [1] This ADDucation list is based on the Wilhelm Heinrich Roscher (1845-1923) list of Roman Indigitamenta making the assumption each deity is a separate minor entitiy rather than an epithet relating to an aspect of a major deity
  • [2] Arval Brothers Acta Arvalia marble tablet records
  • [3] Lives (Titus Livius Patavinus, 64 or 59 BCE and 12 or 17 CE) Roman historian in Founding of the City, Book XXII.10
  • Roman mythology has many conflicting stories so this table of Roman mythology groups will always be a work in progress.

ADDucation Lists Related to Roman Mythology:

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