roman mythology groups

Roman Mythology Groups

Roman Mythology Groups Collective Names for Roman Deities

List of Roman mythology groups including the group names of mythological Roman gods and goddesses with meanings. For individual Roman deities visit ADDucation’s list of Roman Gods and Goddesses.

ADDucation Tips: Click column headings with arrows to sort Roman mythology groups. Click the + icon to show any hidden columns. Set your browser to full screen to show as many columns as possible. Start typing in the Filter table box to find anything inside the table of Roman Mythology Groups. Bold text indicates male/masculine entities and bold+Italics indicates female/feminine entities.

Roman GroupingRoman DeitiesConnectionsGenderGreek EquivalentRoman Mythology Groups
Archaic triadThe Archaic Roman gods are:
  • Jupiter
  • Mars
  • Quirinus
MalenoneThe Archaic triad deities were the original three Roman deities worshiped on the Capitoline Hill in Rome by the flamines maiores (Rome’s ruling class families).
Aventine triad / Plebeian triadThe Plebeian / Aventine deities:
  • Ceres
  • Liber
  • Libera
Agricultural deities. Fertility deities.bothnoneThe Aventine triad was a cult of the Roman deities Ceres, Liber and Libera established around 493 BC in the Aventine Hill area of Rome associated with the Roman plebs shortly after the Roman monarchy was overthrown by the Roman republic.
Capitoline triadThe old/original Capitoline Triad of Roman deities were:
  • Jupiter
  • Mars
  • Quirinus

The new Capitoline Triad Roman deities were:

  • Jupiter
  • Juno
  • Minerva
bothnoneThe Capitoline Triad consisting of Jupiter and his companion deities Juno and Minerva were the three Roman deities worshiped in Jupiter Optimus Maximus temple on Rome’s Capitoline Hill. The lesser known original Capitoline Triad was an all-male affair with Quirinus and Mars instead of  Juno and Minerva. Temples honoring the Capitoline Triad were built in other cities and Roman provinces.
The Carmenae / The Casmenae
Carmenae Roman goddesses list:
  • Antevorta
  • Postvorta
  • Carmenta / Carmentis
  • Egeria /Aegeria
FemaleThe MusesThe Camenae were prophetic Roman nymph goddesses of childbirth, fountains and wells.
Di Consentes / Dii Consentes / Dei Consentes / Dii ComplicesList of Di consentes Roman gods:
  • Mars
  • Mercury
  • Jupiter
  • Neptune
  • Vulcan
  • Apollo

List of Di consentes Roman goddesses:

  • Juno
  • Vesta
  • Minerva
  • Ceres
  • Diana
  • Venus
Di selectibothTwelve OlympiansDi Consentes were the twelve major Roman gods that made up the Roman Council of 12 gods in the pantheon of Ancient Rome. The senate ordered statues organized into six male/female pairs arranged on six sofas to boost public morale in the face of Hannibal’s army marching to attack the city of Rome. Livy[3] organizes the twelve deities into couples as follows:
  • JupiterJuno
  • NeptuneMinerva
  • MarsVenus
  • ApolloDiana
  • VulcanVesta
  • MercuryCeres

There are earlier references to groups of twelve deities in Greek mythology, Anatolian, Lycian, Hittite, Etruscan and Egyptian cultures.

Di FlaminalesRoman deities were cultivated by flamens (priests). The flamen maior (major priests) were:
  • Jupiter Flamen Dialis
  • Mars Flamen Martialis
  • Quirinus Flamen Quirinalis

Roman deities attended by the minor flamens (minor priests):

  • Carmentis Flamen Carmentalis
  • Ceres Flamen Cerialis
  • Falacer Flamen Falacer
  • Flora Flamen Floralis
  • Furrina Flamen Furrinalis
  • Palatua Flamen Palatualis
  • Pomona Flamen Pomonalis
  • Portunus Flamen Portunalis
  • Vulcan Flamen Volcanalis
  • Volturnus Flamen Volturnalis
  • Unknown deity: Flamen unknown
  • Unknown deity: Flamen unknown
Major flamens. Minor flamensBothA flamen was a priest assigned to a deity. Flamens were appointed by the Pontifical College to each of the fifteen official Roman cults. Three major flamens, who had to be patricians from one of Rome’s ruling families, were appointed to the archaic triad deities Jupiter, Mars and Quirinus. The other twelve deities were each assigned a minor flamen, who could be a patrician or a pleb, of which two deities and flamens remain unknown. A major flamen was assigned to Julius Caesar when he was deified as divus (god) of the Roman state.
Di inferiDi inferi is the collective name for the chthonic (underworld) deities which includes other  groups of chthonic deities including:
  • The Graces
  • Di Penates / The Lares / Lemures
  • The Genii
  • The Lares
  • Di Manes
  • The Dirae

The following deities are associated with di inferi:

  • Dis / Dis pater presided over the afterlife with his wife Proserpina.
  • Februus was an Etruscan god of purification and death who was absorbed into the Roman pantheon.
  • Hecate or Trivia, aspect of the triple goddess with Luna and Proserpina.
  • Lemure, the malevolent dead.
  • Libitina is one of the indigitamenta associated with death and the underworld.
  • Mana Genita a minor chthonic goddess concerned with infant mortality.
  • Larum mater “Mother of the Lares” minor goddess also associated with LarundaDea Tacita and Muta.
  • Mors personification of death.
  • Nenia Dea goddess of the funeral lament.
  • Orcus is an archaic underworld god used for the underworld itself, like Hades in Greek mythology.
  • Parca Maurtia / Morta is one of the Parcae who determines mortality.
  • Proserpina is queen of the underworld with husband Dis pater.
  • Summanus is the Roman god of nocturnal thunder.
  • Vediovis is a obscure archaic god

Mania Roman goddess of death
Viduus Roman god who separated the soul and body after death
Nenia Dea Roman goddess of funerals
Soranus Roman underworld Sabine god adopted by the ancient Romans
Libitina Roman goddess of funerals and burial

bothDi inferi is the collective name for chthonic (underworld) deities “those who dwell below”.
Di Manes “good ones”Di inferi. Di Penates. The Lares. The Lemures. GeniibothDi Manes are chthonic (underworld) deities representing the souls of the deceased. Di Manes, together with other groups of chthonic deities, are known collectively as di inferi.
Di Nixi /NixaeDi Nixi birth deities included:
  • Lucina brings children into the light.
  • Vagitanus opened the newborn’s mouth to cry.
  • Fabulinus enabled the child’s first articulate speech.
Di nixi were Roman birth deities.
Di Penates
Di inferi. Associated with Genii (Genius of the paterfamilias), The Lares, The Lemures.bothnoneDi Penates are chthonic (underworld) Roman household deities (domestic deities) and protectors of the house, storeroom/larder and family life. Di Penates are associated with Vesta, the Lares and the Genius of the paterfamilias “domestic universe”. Early Romans worshiped Di Penates with offerings before meals and images on walls and furniture. Di Penates protected the interests of the state and its peoples.
Di selectiDi selecti deities:
  • Apollo
  • Ceres
  • Diana
  • Genius
  • Janus
  • Juno
  • Jupiter
  • Liber
  • Luna
  • Mars
  • Mercury
  • Minerva
  • Neptune
  • Orcus
  • Saturn
  • Sol
  • Tellus
  • Venus
  • Vesta
  • Vulcan
bothnoneList of the 20 main Roman gods and goddesses.
the Dirae / the Furies
Dirae goddesses:
  • Alecto “unnameable”; anger, endless, punisher of moral crimes.
  • Megaera “grudging”; jealous rage, punisher of theft, infidelity and oath breakers.
  • Tisiphone “avenging murder”; vengeful destruction, punisher of murderers.
Di inferi.femaleThe Erinyes / the FuriesThe Dirae / Furies were Roman goddesses of vengeance that listened to complaints from mortals and punished the culprits by tormenting them to death. The Dirae often accompanied Invidia, the Roman goddess of vengeance and divine retribution. The Dirae were daughters of Terra Mater (Mother earth), conceived by Uranus.
The Genii / Genius
  • Genius Publicus Populi Romani
Di inferi.bothnoneThe Genii are anonymous chthonic (underworld) Roman gods and goddesses. Every person is followed by their own genius from birth until death. Most places and things have a genius and there are specific Genii “guardian spirits” including Genius Publicus Populi Romani who looked after the Roman people. The Genii, with other groups of chthonic deities, are collectively referred to as di inferi.
The Gratiae / The Graces
  • Aglaea / Charis “Splendor”
  • Euphrosyne “Mirth”
  • Thalia “Good Cheer”.
Di inferi.FemaleThe CharitiesThe Gratiae were minor chthonic (underworld) Greek goddesses of beauty, charm, creativity, nature and fertility adopted into Roman mythology. In some accounts Charis is a separate goddess rather than the singular form of the Charities. The Gratiae are chthonic (underworld) Roman household deities and protectors of the house and storeroom. Di Penates, with other groups of chthonic deities, are collectively referred to as di inferi. Please refer to our Greek mythology Groups list for other goddesses associated with the Charities.
Indigitamenta
  • Minor Roman functional deities [2]
    • Adolenda deity of tree burning
    • Coinquenda deity of tree felling
    • Commolenda / Conmolanda deity of reducing tree to chips.
    • Deferunda
  • Minor Roman deities:
    • Aescolanus god of copper money, father of Argentinus
    • Afferenda goddess of offering dowries
    • Agonius
    • Aius Locutius
    • Arculus tutelary god of chests and strongboxes
    • Argentinus god of silver money, son of Aescolanus
    • Ascensus god of hillsides and sloping terrain
    • Aventinus
    • Bubona
    • Caeculus
    • Cardea
    • Cela
    • Clivicola
    • Coinquenda
    • Collatina
    • Coluber
    • Decima
    • Deverra
    • Domiduca
    • Domiducus
    • Domitius god who preserves the home of newlyweds
    • Edusa / Educa / Edula / Edulia
    • Fessona / Fessonia goddess who relieved weariness
    • Forculus protector of doors
    • Iana
    • Intercidona
    • Interduca
    • Lateranus
    • Levana
    • Libentina / Lubentina
    • Lima goddess of the threshold
    • Limentinus god of the threshold
    • Limi / Limones guardian spirits of Rome’s slopes and streets
    • Lucrii
    • Manturna conjugal goddess who causes a couple to stay together
    • Mellona
    • Mola
    • Montinus god of mountains
    • Morta
    • Mutunus Tutunus / Tutinus
    • Nemestrinus god of groves
    • Nenia
    • Nona
    • Odoria
    • Panda / Empanda
    • Pantica
    • Parca
    • Partula
    • Pellonia
    • Peragenor
    • Perfica
    • Peta
    • Picumnus
    • Pollentia
    • Praestana
    • Praestitia
    • Puta
    • Rediculus
    • Rumon
    • Rusina
    • Rusor
    • Semonia
    • Segetia
    • Septimontius
    • Serra
    • Spiniensis
    • Stata Mater
    • Sterquilinus
    • Stercutus
    • Stimula
    • Strenia
    • Tutanus
    • Unxia
    • Vallonia
    • Venilia
    • Verminus
    • Vica Pota
    • Victa
    • Viduus
    • Viriplaca
    • Voleta
    • Volumnus
    • Volupia
  • Minor Roman agricultural deities:
    • Altor
    • Conditor
    • Convector
    • Fructesea / Seia
    • Hostilina
    • Inporcitor
    • Insitor
    • Lactans
    • Lacturnus
    • Messia
    • Messor
    • Noduterensis
    • Nodutus
    • Obarator
    • Occator
    • Patella
    • Patellana
    • Promitor
    • Reparator
    • Runcina
    • Sarritor / Saritor
    • Sator
    • Segesta
    • Subruncinator
    • Tutilina
    • Vervactor
    • Volutina
  • Roman deities of conception, childbirth and childcare:
    • Abeona
    • Adeona
    • Agenoria
    • Alemona
    • Antevorta
    • Candelifera
    • Catius pater
    • Cinxia
    • Cuba
    • Cunina
    • Fabulinus
    • Farinus
    • Fluvionia / Fluonia
    • Iuga
    • Iugatinus
    • Locutius
    • Lucina
    • Mena
    • Numeria
    • Nundina
    • Orbona
    • Ossipago
    • Paventina
    • Pertunda
    • Pilumnus
    • Porrima
    • Postverta / Postvortia
    • Potina
    • Potua
    • Prema mater
    • Prorsa
    • Rumina
    • Sentia
    • Sentinus
    • Statanus
    • Statilinus
    • Statina
    • Subigus pater
    • Vagitanus
    • Virginiensis
    • Vitumnus
    • Volumna
Agricultural deities. Functional deities. Conception, childbirth and childcare deities.The College of Pontiffs maintained lists of deities, called Indigitamenta, to be invoked for public prayers. This list assumes the Indigitamenta refers to separate minor deities rather than epithets relating to an aspect of a major deity [1]
The LaresThe Lares were often unnamed and invoked with other deities. Named Lares include:
Lares Privati / Lares Private
  • Lares Familiares: Guardians of the family.
  • Lares Domestici: Guardians of the house.
  • Lares Patrii: Guardians of “dii patrii” (deified ancestors).

Lares Publici / Lares Public:

  • Lares Permarini / Lares Marini: Guardians of the sea and seafarers.
  • Lares Rurales: Guardians of the land.
  • Lares Compitales: Guardians of crossroads.
  • Lares Compitalicii: Guardians of communities (vici).
  • Lares Viales: Guardians of travelers and roads.
  • Lares Praestitis: Guardians of the state.
  • Lares Rurales / Lares Arvale: Guardians of fields and agriculture.
  • Lar Militaris / Military Lar: Cult groups include Mars, Jupiter and other major Roman deities.
  • Lares Praestites “Lares who stand before”: Guardians of the city of Rome, the state or community.
  • Lares of the eaves / Lares Grundules: 30 “grunting Lares” given a cult and altar by Romulus or Aeneas when a sow produced thirty piglets.
  • Lares Augusti: Public lares of Augustus “August Lares”.
Di inferninoneLar or Lares were either deified ancestor or spirits of fertility. The Lares were guardians of the family’s flocks and fields along with locations and specific functions. Every Roman family had a lararium (shrine) where offerings were made to their family Lares, Penates and Vesta. The Lares were typically depicted as dancing youths, with a bowl in one hand and a horn shaped cup in the other. Mania is the mother of the Lares and Nanes, the gods of the household.
The Muses
List of nine Roman muses (adopted from Greek mythology):
  • Calliope (epic poetry)
  • Clioglory” (history)
  • Erato (love poetry)
  • Euterpe (lyrical poetry)
  • Melpomene (tragedy)
  • Polyhymnia (sacred poetry)
  • Terpsichore (dance)
  • Thalia (comedy and pastoral poetry)
  • Urania (astronomy)
The Carmenae.FemaleThe MusesThe Muses were daughters of Jupiter and Mnemosyne and adopted from the Greek goddesses of the arts, literature and sciences with the same names.
The Parcae / Parca / the Fates
List of Parcae goddesses:
  • Nona
  • Decima
  • Morta
FemaleThe Moirai:
  • Clotho
  • Lachesis
  • Atropos
The Parcae goddesses control the destiny of mortals and gods.
The Venti (winds)List of Venti Roman wind gods:
  • Aquilo / Aquilon / Septentrio (Roman god of the North wind and winter)
  • Vulturnus (Roman god of the East wind)
  • Auster (South wind)
  • Favonius “favorable” (Roman god of the West wind and spring)
  • Caecius (Northeast wind)
  • Apeliotus (Southeast wind)
  • Africus (Southwest wind)
  • Corus / Caurus (Northwest wind)
Di indigetesMaleThe AnemoiThe Venti lived at the origin of their respective winds. Corus was one of di indigetes (indigenous gods) that were not adopted from other religions.

Notes and FAQ about ADDucation’s Roman mythology Groups:

  • This list is primarily compiled from the works of Roman scholar Marcus Terentius Varro (116-27 BC) and Roman poet Ovid (43 BC ~ 17 AD) and other Roman historians.
  • [1] This ADDucation list is based on the Wilhelm Heinrich Roscher (1845-1923) list of Roman Indigitamenta making the assumption each deity is a separate minor entitiy rather than an epithet relating to an aspect of a major deity.
  • [2] Arval Brothers Acta Arvalia marble tablet records.
  • [3] Lives (Titus Livius Patavinus, 64 or 59 BCE and 12 or 17 CE) Roman historian in Founding of the City, Book XXII.10.
  • Roman mythology has many conflicting stories so this list of Roman mythology groups will always be a work in progress. Please use the comments area to help us resolve issues and improve the list.

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