|Apollo 1||Gus Grissom||Ed White||Roger Chaffee||27 Feb 1967||–|
- Originally planned to be the first manned mission.
- Sadly, as a result of a fire in the command module (CM), during a pre-launch test on 27 Jan 1967, the crew all died from asphyxiation from smoke inhalation.
|Apollo 2||Wally Schirra||Donn Eisele||Walt Cunningham||Aug 1967||–|
- Cancelled on 22 Dec 1966 because it was deemed unnecessary.
- The same crew flew on Apollo 7.
|AS-201||Unmanned||26 Feb 1966||0:37:19|
- First test of Saturn IB and first flight of Block I Apollo Command/Service Module (CSM).
- After a suborbital flight the command module (CM) landed in the Atlantic Ocean demonstrating the heat shield.
- Loss of propellant pressure caused the service module (SM) engine to shutdown prematurely.
- Splashed down on 26 February 1966 in the Southern Atlantic Ocean and recovered by USS Boxer.
|AS-202||Unmanned||25 Aug 1966||1:33:02|
- Longer duration suborbital flight to Pacific Ocean splashdown testing the command module heat shield at higher speed.
- Successful service module (SM) firings.
- Splashdown on 25 August 1966, West of Hawaii, recovered by USS Hornet.
|AS-203||Unmanned||5 Jul 1966||~6:00:00|
- Successfully tested the restartable S-IVB rocket engine stage design for the Saturn V rocket.
- No Apollo spacecraft was carried.
- The stage was accidentally destroyed, by tests designed to rupture the tank. It broke into pieces that were not recovered.
|Apollo 4||Unmanned||9 Nov 1967||8:36:59|| |
- First Saturn V launch vehicle test flight.
- Command module (CM) placed into a high Earth orbit and tested the heat shield at re-entry speeds.
- Successful demonstration of the S-IVB rocket stage restart.
- Apollo 4 splashed down on 9 November 1967 in the North Pacific Ocean, retrieved by USS Bennington.
|Apollo 5||Unmanned||22 Jan 1968||11:10:00|
- First Earth unmanned flight of the lunar module (LM).
- Launched on Saturn IB rocket.
- Ascent and descent engines successfully fired.
- Fire in the hole landing abort test demonstrated.
- Uncontrolled reentry; The ascent stage burned up on re-entry 24 January 1968, the descent stage re-entered on 12 February 1968, fell into the Pacific Ocean and was not recovered.
|Apollo 6||Unmanned||4 Apr 1968||9:57:20|
- Attempted demonstration of trans-lunar injection, and direct-return abort using service module (SM) engine.
- Flight controllers used the SM engine to achieve high speed re-entry repeating the Apollo 4 flight profile.
- NASA identified fixes for severe vibrations and declared Saturn V man-rated.
- Apollo 6 splashed down on 4 April 1968 in the North Pacific Ocean, retrieved by USS Okinawa.
|Apollo 7||Wally Schirra||Donn Eisele||Walt Cunningham||11 Oct 1968||260:09:03|
- First manned Apollo mission making 163 Earth orbits.
- First manned flight of the Saturn IB.
- Test flight for the Block II CSM in Earth orbit.
- First live TV broadcast from inside an American spacecraft.
- Last manned launch from Cape Kennedy.
- Apollo 7 splashed down on 22 October 1968 in the Atlantic Ocean, retrieved by USS Essex.
|Apollo 8||Frank Borman||James Lovell||William Anders||21 Dec 1968||147:42:00|
- Apollo 8 was the first manned flight to fly around the moon making 10 orbits in 20 hours.
- First manned flight of the Saturn V.
- Frank Borman, James Lovell and William Anders were the first people to see Earth as a whole planet, the far side of the Moon and Earthrise over the lunar horizon.
- Live TV pictures were broadcast to Earth on Christmas Eve. The crew controversially read the first 10 verses from the Bible, Book of Genesis.
- First manned spaceflight to launch from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida.
- Apollo 8 splashdown was on 27 December 1968 in the North Pacific Ocean, recovered by USS Yorktown.
- Crew named Time magazine 1968 Men of the Year.
|Apollo 9||James McDivitt||David Scott||Russell Schweickart||3 Mar 1969||241:00:54|
- The crew spent ten days in low Earth orbit testing the lunar module engines, backpack life support systems, navigation systems, and docking maneuvers all crucial for a moon landing.
- First manned flight of the lunar module.
- First docking, and extraction, of a LM and two spacewalks (EVA).
- Apollo 9 CM Gumdrop splashdown was on 13 March 1969 in the North Atlantic Ocean, retrieved by USS Guadalcanal.
|Apollo 10||Thomas Stafford||John Young||Eugene Cernan||18 May 1969||192:03:23|
- Apollo 10 was the dress rehearsal for the first Moon landing.
- Everything was tested apart from landing on the Moon.
- Apollo 10 made the 2002 Guinness Book of World Records for the highest speed by a manned vehicle at 24,791 mph (39,897 km/h) during its return from the Moon on 26 May 1969.
- John Young became the first human to fly solo around the Moon.
- The mission’s call signs included the names characters from Peanuts Charlie Brown and Snoopy and they became unofficial mascots. Charles Schulz, the Peanuts creator worked on some NASA mission-related artwork.
- Apollo 10 CM Charlie Brown splashdown was on 26 May 1969 in the Pacific Ocean, retrieved by USS Princeton.
|Apollo 11||Neil Armstrong||Michael Collins||Buzz Aldrin||16 Jul 1969||195:18:35|
- Apollo 11 was the first of the manned Apollo moon landings.
- Apollo 11 was the first manned mission to land on the moon.
- On 20 July 1969 Neil Armstrong became the first man to walk on the moon which was broadcast on live TV to a worldwide audience. As he stepped onto the lunar surface Neil Armstrong said:
That’s one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind.
- Around 20 minutes later Buzz Aldrin joined him to become the second person to walk on the moon and they had a conversation:
Isn’t it magnificent?
Buzz Aldrin replied “Magnificent desolation.
- They spent over two hours together outside the spacecraft and collected 47.51 pounds (21.55 kg) of lunar material to bring back to Earth.
- Michael Collins piloted Columbia command module alone in lunar orbit. In his book Collins reveals Aldrin lobbied to be the first astronaut to walk on the moon:
I think he [Aldrin] resents not being first on the moon more than he appreciates being second.
- Apollo 11 CM Columbia splashed down on 24 July 1969 in the Pacific Ocean, retrieved by USS Hornet.
- The Apollo 11 moon landing fulfilled a national goal set by US President John F Kennedy in 1961 to land a man on the Moon and return him safely to Earth before the end of the decade and effectively ended the Space Race against the Soviet Union.
|Apollo 12||Charles “Pete” Conrad||Richard Gordon||Alan Bean||14 Nov 1969||244:36:24|
- Apollo 12 was the second of the manned Apollo moon landings.
- The first rocket launch attended by an incumbent US president, Richard Nixon.
- Apollo 12 was struck twice by lightning during the first minute after launch which caused serious problems. John Aaron at mission control made an obscure call to switch SCE to the backup power supply which fixed the problem and avoided an aborted mission.
- Apollo 12 landed on the moon, with precision, on 19 November 1969, in the southeastern portion of the Ocean of Storms, around 600 ft (183 m) from the site of the Surveyor 3 unmanned probe. On 20 November 1969 (the second of two EVAs) Conrad and Bean visited Surveyor III. This was the first, and only time so far, any human has encountered a probe sent to another world. They removed some parts to return to Earth.
- Pete Conrad was shorter than Neil Armstrong which makes sense of this first words as he stepped into the lunar surface:
Oooh, is that soft and queasy then
Whoopee! Man, that may have been a small one for Neil, but that’s a long one for me.
- They collected rocks, took photos (although Alan Bean accidentally left several rolls of exposed film on the lunar surface) and set up a nuclear-powered ALSEP station on the Moon to relay long-term data including seismicity, solar wind flux and magnetic field from the lunar surface to Earth.
- The crew collected 75.62 lb (34.30 kg) of lunar samples to return to Earth.
- Richard Gordon, on board the command module Yankee Clipper in lunar orbit, took multi-spectral photographs of the Moon’s surface.
- Apollo 12 CM Yankee Clipper splashdown was on 24 November 1969 in the Pacific Ocean, retrieved by USS Hornet.
|Apollo 13||James Arthur “Jim” Lovell||John Swigert||Fred Haise||11 Apr 1970||142:54:41||AS-508|
|Apollo 14||Alan Shepard||Stuart Roosa||Edgar Mitchell||31 Jan 1971||216:01:58|
- Apollo 14 was the third of the manned Apollo moon landings.
- The first mission to successfully broadcast color television pictures from the surface of the Moon.
- On 5 Feb 1971, Alan Shepard (the first US astronaut in space and 47 years the oldest moon visitor, 1923-1998) stepped onto the moon, grabbed two golf balls and struck them with a geological instrument several hundred meters. Edgar Mitchell looked on.
- The crew collected 94.35 lb (42.8 kg) of lunar samples to return to Earth.
- Stuart Roosa remained in lunar orbit aboard Command/Service Module (CSM) Kitty Hawk taking photographs and performing experiments. He took 500 seeds from Douglas Fir, Loblolly Pine, Redwood, Sycamore and Sweetgum into Moon orbit and they became know as
- Apollo 14 CM Kitty Hawk splashdown was on 9 February 1971 in the South Pacific Ocean, retrieved by New Orleans.
|Apollo 15||David Scott||Alfred Worden||James Irwin||26 July 1971||295:11:53|
- Apollo 15 was the fourth of the manned Apollo moon landings.
- First mission to use the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) which traveled 17.25 miles (27.76 km)
- Three days on the moon, 4 EVAs totaling 19 hours, 7 minutes, 53 seconds.
- The crew collected 169.1 lb (76.7 kg) of lunar samples to return to Earth.
- Pilot Alfred Worden used the Scientific Instrument Module (SIM) to study the Moon in detail using a panoramic camera, mapping camera, laser altimeter, mass and gamma-ray spectrometers.
- Deployed the first lunar sub-satellite as they left lunar orbit.
- Adverse publicity:
Apollo 15 postage stamp incident after the crew admitted they sold 400 special stamps on their return.
- Good publicity: The crew commissioned Belgian sculptor Paul Van Hoeydonck to create an statuette called “Fallen Astronaut” to commemorate 14 astronauts and cosmonauts who lost their lives in the pursuit of space exploration which David Scott left by the rover, along with a plaque bearing their names.
- Apollo 15 CM Endeavour splashdown was on 7 August 1971 in the North Pacific Ocean, retrieved by USS Okinawa.
|Apollo 16||John Young||Ken Mattingly||Charles Duke||16 Apr 1972||265:51:05|
- Apollo 16 was the fifth of the manned Apollo moon landings.
- First to land in the lunar highlands.
- The crew collected 209.89 lb (95.2 kg) of lunar samples in three EVAs.
- Deployed PFS-2 lunar sub-satellite (unwittingly) into an unstable orbit as they left lunar orbit and it crashed into the lunar surface on 29 May 1972 after 35 days and 425 orbits.
- Apollo 16 CM Casper splashed down on 27 April 1972 in the Pacific Ocean, retrieved by USS Ticonderoga.
|Apollo 17||Eugene Cernan||Ronald Evans||Harrison Schmitt||7 Dec 1972||301:51:59|
- Apollo 17 was the last of six manned Apollo moon landings.
- Apollo 17 was the last manned Saturn V launch and only night launch.
- Harrison Schmitt was the first and only scientist to walk on the moon.
- The last moonwalk took place on 13 December 1972 by Harrison Schmitt and Eugene Cernan.
- They collected a total of 243.40 lb (110.40 kg) of lunar material in three EVAs.
- Eugene Cernan spoke the last words on the moon:
I’m on the surface and, as I take man’s last step from the surface, back home for some time to come – but we believe not too long into the future – I’d like to just [say] what I believe history will record. That America’s challenge of today has forged man’s destiny of tomorrow. And, as we leave the Moon at Taurus-Littrow, we leave as we came and, God willing, as we shall return, with peace and hope for all mankind. Godspeed the crew of Apollo 17.
- Apollo 17 CM America splashdown was on 19 December 1972 in the Pacific Ocean, retrieved by USS Ticonderoga.
|Apollo 18||Richard Gordon||Vance Brand||Harrison Schmitt||Feb 1972||Mission cancelled 2 Sep 1970 due to budget cuts.|
|Apollo 19||Fred Haise||William Pogue||Gerald Carr||July 1972||Mission cancelled 2 Sep 1970 due to budget cuts.|
|Apollo 20||Pete Conrad or Stuart Roosa||Paul Weitz||Jack Lousma||Dec 1972 – Feb 1973||Mission cancelled 4 Jan 1970 because the launch vehicle was needed for the Skylab launch.|