chemical elements

Chemical Elements List

118 Chemical Elements List with Names & Symbols

Chemical Elements FAQs

Chemical Elements Frequently Asked Questions

Why do some chemical elements have names which do not match its symbol?
Most of the abbreviations for the 118 chemical elements are derived from Latin. Here’s a list of chemical elements with symbols which do NOT match their names with explanations:

  • Antimony (Sb)
    The symbol Sb for Antimony is taken from Latin stibium, Greek stíbi which means eye paint because antimony was used in eye cosmetics.
  • Copper (Cu)
    The symbol Cu for Copper is taken from Latin Cuprum a contraction of Cyprian metal from Cyprus which was famous for copper.
  • Gold (Au)
    The symbol Au for Gold is taken from Latin aurum (yellow) and from aurora (dawn).
  • Iron (Fe)
    The symbol Fe for Iron is taken from Latin errum which means iron or sword.
  • Lead (Pb)
    The symbol Pb for Lead is taken from Latin plumbum probably derived from an earlier language than Greek.
  • Mercury (Hg)
    The symbol Hg for Mercury is taken from Greek hydrargyros (liquid silver or quicksilver in English) resulting in hydrargyrum. Alchemists believed hydrargyrum was close to gold so named it after the planet closest to the Sun, which is Mercury.
  • Potassium (K)
    The symbol K for Potassium is taken from Latin Kalium.
  • Silver (Ag)
    The symbol Ag for Silver is taken from Latin argentum probably derived from an Indo-European word for shiny metal. Argentina is the only country named after a chemical element.
  • Sodium (Na)
    The symbol Na for Sodium is taken from Latin natrium, Greek nítron and earlier Arabic natrun.
  • Tin (Sn)
    The symbol Sn for Silver is taken from latin stannum probably derived from the Indo-European word stag (dripping) because tin is easily melted.
  • Tungsten (W)
    The symbol W for Tungsten refers to Wolfram the mineral found in wolframite, from the German wolf rahm/wolf’s foam – the amount of tin consumed to extract Tungsten.

ADDucation Tips: Click column headings with arrows to sort chemical elements. Click the + icon to show any hidden columns. Set your browser to full screen and zoom out to show as many columns as possible. The Symbols are color coded by classification to match the periodic table graphic. Start typing in the Filter table box to find anything inside the table of all chemical elements.

Chemical Elements Sym Classification State @ 20°C/68F Atomic No: Atomic Weight u Melting Point °C Boiling Point °C Discoverer/s Year discovered
Hydrogen H Non-metal gas 1 1.008 -259.1 -252.9 Henry Cavendish. 1766
Helium He Noble gas gas 2 4.0026 -272.2 -268.9 Ramsay, Crookes, Cleve, Langlet. 1895
Lithium Li Alkali metal solid 3 6.941 180.5 1,342 Johan August Arfwedson. 1817
Beryllium Be Alkali earth metal solid 4 9.012 1,278 2,970 Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin. 1797
Boron B Metalloid solid 5 10.811 2,300 2,550 Humphry Davy & J. Gay-Lussac. 1808
Carbon C Non-metal solid 6 12.011 3,550 4,827 Unknown. unknown
Nitrogen N Non-metal gas 7 14.007 -209,9 -195.8 Daniel Rutherford, Carl Wilhelm Scheele. 1771/72
Oxygen O Non-metal gas 8 15.999 -218.4 -182.9 Carl W Scheele & Joseph Priestley. 1774
Fluorine F Halogen gas 9 18.998 -219.6 -188.1 Henri Moissan. 1886
Neon Ne Noble gas gas 10 20.1797 -248.7 -246.1 William Ramsay & Morris Travers. 1898
Sodium Na Alkali metal solid 11 22.990 97.8 892 Humphry Davy. 1807
Magnesium Mg Alkali earth metal solid 12 24.305 648.8 1,107 Humphry Davy. 1808
Aluminum (US)

Aluminium (UK)

Al Other metal solid 13 26.982 660.5 2,467 Hans Christian Ørsted. 1825
Silicon Si Metalloid solid 14 28.086 1,410 2,355 Jöns Jakob Berzelius. 1824
Phosphorus P Non-metal solid 15 30.974 44 280 Hennig Brand. 1669
Sulfur (US)

Sulphur
(UK/international)

S Non-metal solid 16 32.066 113 444.7 Unknown (prehistoric). unknown
Chlorine Cl Halogen gas 17 35.453 -101 -34.6 Carl Wilhelm Scheele. 1774
Argon Ar Noble gas gas 18 39.948 -189.4 -185.9 William Ramsay. 1894
Potassium K Alkali metal solid 19 39.098 63.7 774 Humphry Davy. 1807
Calcium Ca Alkali earth metal solid 20 40.078 839 1,487 Humphry Davy. 1808
Scandium Sc Transition metal solid 21 44.956 1,539 2,832 Lars Fredrik Nilson. 1879
Titanium Ti Transition metal solid 22 47.867 1,660 3,260 William Gregor & Martin Klaproth. 1791
Vanadium V Transition metal solid 23 50.942 1,890 3,380 Andrés Manuel del Rio. 1801
Chrome Cr Transition metal solid 24 51.996 1,857 2,482 Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin. 1797
Manganese Mn Transition metal solid 25 54.90 1.244 2,097 Johann Gottlieb Gahn. 1774
Iron (Ferrum) Fe Transition metal solid 26 55.845 1.535 2,750 Unknown (prehistoric). unknown
Cobalt Co Transition metal solid 27 58.93 1.495 2,870 Georg Brandt. 1735
Nickel Ni Transition metal solid 28 58.643 1.453 2,732 Axel Frederic Cronstedt. 1751
Copper (Cuprum) Cu Transition metal solid 29 63.546 1.083,5 2,595 Unknown (prehistoric). unknown
Zinc Zn Transition metal solid 30 65.38 419.6 907 Marggraf. 1746
Gallium Ga Other metal solid 31 69.723 29.8 2,403 Lecoq de Boisbaudran. 1875
Germanium Ge Metalloid solid 32 72.631 937.4 2,830 Clemens Winkler. 1886
Arsenic As Metalloid solid 33 74.922 81 613 Albertus Magnus. 1250
Selenium Se Non-metal solid 34 78.972 217 685 Jöns Jakob Berzelius. 1817
Bromine Br Halogen liquid 35 79.904 -7.3 58,8 Antoine-Jérôme Balard. 1826
Krypton Kr Noble gas gas 36 84.798 -156.6 -152.3 William Ramsay & Morris Travers. 1898
Rubidium Rb Alkali metal solid 37 85.468 39 688 Robert Bunsen & Gustav Kirchhoff. 1861
Strontium Sr Alkali earth metal solid 38 87.62 769 1,384 Humphry Davy. 1808
Yttrium Y Transition metal solid 39 88.906 1,523 3,337 Johan Gadolin. 1794
Zirconium Zr Transition metal solid 40 91.224 1,852 4,377 Martin Heinrich Klaproth. 1789
Niobium Nb Transition metal solid 41 92.906 2,468 4,927 Charles Hatchett. 1801
Molybdenum Mo Transition metal solid 42 95.95 2,617 5,560 Carl Wilhelm Scheele. 1778
Technetium Tc Transition metal solid 43 98* 2,172 5,030 Emilio Segrè & Carlo Perrier. 1937
Ruthenium Ru Transition metal solid 44 101.07 2,310 3,900 Karl Ernst Claus. 1844
Rhodium Rh Transition metal solid 45 102.906 1,966 3,727 William Hyde Wollaston. 1803
Palladium Pd Transition metal solid 46 106.42 1,552 3,140 William Hyde Wollaston. 1803
Silver (Argentum) Ag Transition metal solid 47 107.868 961.9 2,212 Unknown (prehistoric) unknown
Cadmium Cd Transition metal solid 48 112.411 321 765 Friedr. Stromeyer & Carl Hermann. 1817
Indium In Other metal solid 49 114.818 156.2 2,080 Ferdinand Reich & Theo Richter. 1863
Tin (Stannum) Sn Other metal solid 50 118.711 232 2,270 Unknown (prehistoric). unknown
Antimony (Stibium) Sb Metalloid solid 51 121.760 630.7 1,750 Unknown (prehistoric). unknown
Tellurium Te Metalloid solid 52 127.60 449.6 990 Franz J. Müller von Reichenstein. 1782
Iodine I Halogen solid 53 126.904 113.5 184.4 Bernard Courtois. 1811
Xenon Xe Noble gas gas 54 131.294 -111.9 -107 William Ramsay & Morris Travers. 1898
Cesium Cs Alkali metal solid 55 132.905 28.4 690 Gustav Kirchhoff & Robert Bunsen. 1860
Barium Ba Alkali earth metal solid 56 137.328 725 1,640 Humphry Davy. 1808
Lanthanum La Transition metal solid 57 138.905 920 3,454 Carl Gustav Mosander. 1839
Cerium Ce Lanthanide solid 58 140.116 798 3,257 von Hisinger, Berzelius, Klaproth. 1803
Praseodymium Pr Lanthanide solid 59 140.908 931 3,212 Carl Auer von Welsbach. 1885
Neodymium Nd Lanthanide solid 60 144.242 1,010 3,127 Carl Auer von Welsbach. 1895
Promethium Pm Lanthanide solid 61 [145]* 1,080 2,730 Marinsky, Glendenin, Coryell. 1945
Samarium Sm Lanthanide solid 62 150.36 1,072 1,778 Lecoq de Boisbaudran. 1879
Europium Eu Lanthanide solid 63 151.964 822 1,597 Eugène-Anatole Demarcay. 1901
Gadolinium Gd Lanthanide solid 64 157.25 1,311 3,233 Jean Charles G. de Marignac. 1880
Terbium Tb Lanthanide solid 65 158.925 1,360 3,041 Carl Gustav Mosander. 1843
Dysprosium Dy Lanthanide solid 66 162.500 1,409 2,335 Lecoq de Boisbaudran. 1886
Holmium Ho Lanthanide solid 67 164.930 1,470 2,720 Marc Delafontaine & Jacques Soret. 1878
Erbium Er Lanthanide solid 68 167.259 1,522 2,510 Carl Gustav Mosander. 1843
Thulium Tm Lanthanide solid 69 168.934 1,545 1,727 Per Teodor Cleve. 1879
Ytterbium Yb Lanthanide solid 70 173.045 824 1,193 Jean Charles G. de Marignac. 1878
Lutetium Lu Lanthanide solid 71 174.967 1,656 3,315 von Welsbach, James & Urbain. 1907
Hafnium Hf Transition metal solid 72 178.49 2,150 5,400 Dirk Coster & George de Hevesy. 1923
Tantalum Ta Transition metal solid 73 180.948 2,996 5,425 Anders Gustaf Ekeberg. 1802
Tungsten W Transition metal solid 74 183.84 3,407 5,927 Fausto & Juan de Elhuyar. 1783
Rhenium Re Transition metal solid 75 186.207 3,180 5,627 Noddack, Tacke, Berg. 1925
Osmium Os Transition metal solid 76 190.23 3,045 5,027 Smithson Tennant. 1803
Iridium Ir Transition metal solid 77 192.217 2,410 4,130 Smithson Tennant. 1803
Platinum Pt Transition metal solid 78 195.085 1,772 3,827 Julius Caesar Scaliger. 1557
Gold (Aurum) Au Transition metal solid 79 196.967 1,064.4 2,940 Unknown (prehistoric). unknown
Mercury (Hydrargyrum) Hg Transition metal liquid 80 200.592 -38.9 356.6 Unknown (prehistoric). unknown
Thallium Tl Other metal solid 81 204.383 303.6 1,457 William Crookes. 1861
Lead (Plumbum) Pb Other metal solid 82 207.20 327.5 1,740 Unknown (prehistoric). unknown
Bismuth Bi Other metal solid 83 208.98 271.4 1,560 Georgius Agricola. 1540
Polonium Po Other metal solid 84 [209]* 254 962 Marie and Pierre Curie. 1898
Astatine At Halogen solid 85 [210]* 302 337 Corson, MacKenzie, Emilio Segrè. 1940
Radon Rn Noble gas gas 86 [222]* -71 -61.85 Friedrich Ernst Dorn. 1900
Francium Fr Alkali metal solid 87 [223]* 27 677 Marguerite Perey. 1939
Radium Ra Alkali earth metal solid 88 [226]* 700 1,140 Marie and Pierre Curie. 1898
Actinium Ac Transition metal solid 89 [227]* 1,047 3,197 André-Louis Debierne. 1899
Thorium Th Actinide solid 90 232.038 1,750 4,787 Jöns Jakob Berzelius. 1829
Protactinium Pa Actinide solid 91 231.036 1,554 4,030 Fajans, Göring, Hahn, Meitner. 1917
Uranium U Actinide solid 92 238.029 1,132.4 3,818 Martin Heinrich Klaproth. 1789
Neptunium Np Actinide solid 93 [237]* 640 3,902 Edwin McMillan & Philip Abelson. 1940
Plutonium Pu Actinide solid 94 [244]* 641 3,327 Seaborg, Kennedy, McMillan, Wahl. 1940
Americium Am Actinide solid 95 [243]* 994 2,607 Glenn T. Seaborg. 1944
Curium Cm Actinide solid 96 [247]* 1,340 3,110 Seaborg, James, Morgan, Ghiorso. 1944
Berkelium Bk Actinide solid 97 [247]* 986 unknown Glenn T. Seaborg. 1949
Californium Cf Actinide solid 98 [251]* 900 unknown Thompson, Street, Ghiorso, Seaborg. 1950
Einsteinium Es Actinide solid 99 [252]* 860 unknown Glenn T. Seaborg. 1952
Fermium Fm Actinide unknown 100 [257]* unknown unknown Glenn T. Seaborg. 1952
Mendelevium Md Actinide unknown 101 [258]* unknown unknown Seaborg, Ghiorso, Harvey, Choppin. 1955
Nobelium No Actinide unknown 102 [259]* unknown unknown Seaborg, Ghiorso, Sikkeland, Walton. 1958
Lawrencium Lr Actinide unknown 103 [262]* unknown unknown Ghiorso, Sikkeland, Larsh, Latimer. 1961
Rutherfordium Rf Transition metal unknown 104 [261]* unknown unknown Georgi Flerow or Ghiorso (1964/1969). 1964 or
1969
Dubnium Db Transition metal solid 105 [262]* unknown unknown Georgi Flerow or Ghiorso. 1967 or
1970
Seaborgium Sg Transition metal solid 106 [266]* unknown unknown Georgi Flerow & Juri Organessian. 1974
Bohrium Bh Transition metal solid 107 [264]* unknown unknown Juri Zolakowitsch Oganessian. 1976
Hassium Hs Transition metal solid 108 [269]* unknown unknown GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research. 1984
Meitnerium Mt Transition metal† solid 109 [268]* unknown unknown GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research. 1982
Darmstadtium Ds Transition metal† solid 110 [269]* unknown unknown GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research. 1994
Roentgenium Rg Transition metal† solid 111 [272]* unknown unknown GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research. 1994
Copernicium Cn Transition metal solid 112 [277]* unknown unknown GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research. 1996
Nihonium Nh Other metal† unknown 113 [286]* unknown unknown JINR (Joint Institute Nuclear Research). 2004
Flerovium Fl Other metal† unknown 114 [289]* unknown unknown JINR (Joint Institute Nuclear Research). 1999
Moscovium Mc Other metal† unknown 115 [289]* unknown unknown JINR (Joint Institute Nuclear Research). 2006
Livermorium Lv Other metal† solid
(predicted)
116 [293]* unknown unknown JINR (Joint Institute Nuclear Research). 2000
Tennessine Ts Halogen† unknown 117 [294]* unknown unknown JINR (Joint Institute Nuclear Research). 2010
Oganesson Og Noble gas† unknown 118 [294]* unknown unknown JINR (Joint Institute Nuclear Research). 2006
Chemical Element Table Key
  • Chemical Elements: The name of some chemical elements differs by locality. Variations are indicated in the table. Other chemical elements names (e.g. 104 to 109) are disputed by the ACS (American Chemical Society) and the IUPAC (International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry).
  • Symbol (Sym): Abbreviated name for each element consisting of a capital letter followed by one or two lower case letters. Typically derived from its Latin name.
  • Classification: The period table groups of which there are many variations.
    • † Predicted – still under research or disputed.
  • State @ 20°C: Gas, liquid or solid.
  • Atomic number (Atomic No): Set to the number of protons in the nucleus for each atom.
  • Atomic weight u: Weight in unified atomic mass unit (u or Da)): Set to the approximate total of the number of protons and the number of neutrons.
    • [*] Chemical Elements which don’t have any stable nuclides are included in square brackets. The number indicates the mass number of the longest-lived isotope of the element apart from Bismuth, Protactinium, Thorium and Uranium which have characteristic terrestrial isotopic compositions so their standard atomic weights are used.
  • Melting Point °C: Temperature, in degrees Celsius, at which chemical elements changes from a solid to a liquid or vice-versa.
  • Boiling Point °C: Temperature, in degrees Celsius, at which a chemical element changes from a liquid to a gas or vice-versa.
  • Discoverer/s: The first person or team of scientists to identify the chemical element. Some chemical elements were discovered by earlier civilizations so the discoverer is unknown.
  • Year discovered: Year chemical elements were first isolated and identified.
Chemical Element Groups & Classifications Explained

You will find chemical elements grouped, spelt and colored differently in various versions of the periodic table but the underlying principle remains the same i.e. chemical elements that share similar properties are organized in columns. The classifications are as follows:

  • Alkali Metals: These metals do not occur freely in nature because they react violently with water. Their usual oxidation state is +1. The 6 akali metals are Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium and Francium.
  • Alkaline Earth Metals: These reactive metals do not occur freely in nature and their usual oxidation state is +2. The 6 alkaline earth metals are Beryllium, Magnesium, Calcium, Strontium, Barium and Radium.
  • Transition Metals: There are 38 elements in total including Iron, Cobalt and Nickel which are the only known elements which produce magnetic fields. The valence electrons (or the electrons they use to combine with other elements) in transition metals are present in more than one shell and for this reason they often exhibit several common oxidation states.
  • Other Metals (aka basic metals, poor metals): These elements are all solid and opaque. All their valence electrons in their outer shell so, unlike transition elements, they don’t exhibit variable oxidation states. The 7 basic metals are: Aluminum, Gallium, Indium, Tin, Thallium, Lead and Bismuth.
  • Rare Earth Elements (aka inner transition metals): 30 rare earth elements divided into the Lanthanide and Actinide series, each containing 15 elements. They are all highly reactive with Halogens.
    • Lanthanides are silvery white metals which all have similar properties to Lanthanum, the first element in the series.
    • Actinides are named after Actinium, the first element in the series. Apart from Uranium and Thorium they are trans-uranium, which means synthetic or man-made, and they are created in nuclear reactors, including Plutonium, which is used in nuclear weapons.
  • Metalloids (aka semi-metals): This group of 7 elements makes up the diagonal border between metals and non-metals and they each have properties from both groups. Metals are generally ductile, malleable and conduct heat and electricity. Under certain conditions Germanium and Silicon can be conductive or non-conductive and it’s this property which makes them so useful in electronic circuitry. The other 5 metalloids are Boron, Arsenic, Antimony, Tellurium and Polonium.
  • Non-Metals: Generally poor conductors, brittle and non-reflective and, at room temperature, can exist as gases (e.g Oxygen) and solids. The 7 non-metals are Hydrogen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, Sulfur and Selenium.
  • Halogens (means salt-former): There are 5 Halogens which, at room temperature, exist in all three states of matter. Iodine and Astatine as solids, Bromine as a liquid and Fluorine and Chlorine as gases. All Halogens have an oxidation number of -1.
  • Noble Gases: All noble gases have an oxidation number of 0 which makes them stable and generally inert. The noble gases are Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon, Radon and possibly Oganesson.

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One response to “Chemical Elements List”

  1. JC says:

    I’ve now created our own ADDucation Periodic Table of Chemical Elements! We needed one to fit across the top of the page – I’ve added it as a PDF and made it free to download and share. If anyone would like a higher resolution version just let me know what size and I’ll email you a copy.

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