chemical elements periodic table

Periodic Table of Chemical Elements

Table of Chemical Elements – Periodic Table of Elements

The periodic table of chemical elements was first conceived in 1869 by Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev who used the periodic table to predict the properties of chemical elements, including some before they were discovered. Free ADDucation Periodic Table to download… (1.2Mb PDF version of the header image above. Created and released by ADDucation on CC0 1.0 terms)

Why is the Periodic Table Called the Periodic Table?

The periodic table is organized into:

  • 7 rows; representing periods
  • 18 columns; representing groups

Chemical elements are organized into periods ordered by their atomic number (i.e. the number of protons in their nucleus). Chemical elements which share similar properties are called congeners and (by skipping columns) are organized into groups. The first element in each row (period) has just one electron in its outer shell which makes it unstable and the most reactive. The last element in each row (period) has a full shell of electrons so these elements are the least reactive and most stable elements.

Chemical Element Groups & Classifications Explained

You will find chemical elements grouped, spelt and colored differently in various versions of the periodic table but the underlying principle remains the same i.e. chemical elements that share similar properties are organized in columns. The ADDucation Period Table Groups (aka Classifications) are:

  • Alkali Metals: These metals do not occur freely in nature because they react violently with water. Their usual oxidation state is +1. The 6 akali metals are Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium and Francium.
  • Alkaline Earth Metals: These reactive metals do not occur freely in nature and their usual oxidation state is +2. The 6 alkaline earth metals are Beryllium, Magnesium, Calcium, Strontium, Barium and Radium.
  • Transition Metals: There are 38 elements in total including Iron, Cobalt and Nickel which are the only known elements which produce magnetic fields. The valence electrons (or the electrons they use to combine with other elements) in transition metals are present in more than one shell and for this reason they often exhibit several common oxidation states.
  • Other Metals (aka basic metals, poor metals): These elements are all solid and opaque. All their valence electrons in their outer shell so, unlike transition elements, they don’t exhibit variable oxidation states. The 7 basic metals are: Aluminum, Gallium, Indium, Tin, Thallium, Lead and Bismuth.
  • Rare Earth Elements (aka inner transition metals): 30 rare earth elements divided into the Lanthanide and Actinide series, each containing 15 elements. They are all highly reactive with Halogens.
    • Lanthanides are silvery white metals which all have similar properties to Lanthanum, the first element in the series.
    • Actinides are named after Actinium, the first element in the series. Apart from Uranium and Thorium they are trans-uranium, which means synthetic or man-made, and they are created in nuclear reactors, including Plutonium, which is used in nuclear weapons.
  • Metalloids (aka semi-metals): This group of 7 elements makes up the diagonal border between metals and non-metals and they each have properties from both groups. Metals are generally ductile, malleable and conduct heat and electricity. Under certain conditions Germanium and Silicon can be conductive or non-conductive and it’s this property which makes them so useful in electronic circuitry. The other 5 metalloids are Boron, Arsenic, Antimony, Tellurium and Polonium.
  • Non-Metals: Generally poor conductors, brittle and non-reflective and, at room temperature, can exist as gases (e.g Oxygen) and solids. The 7 non-metals are Hydrogen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, Sulfur and Selenium.
  • Halogens (means “salt-former”): There are 5 Halogens which, at room temperature, exist in all three states of matter. Iodine and Astatine as solids, Bromine as a liquid and Fluorine and Chlorine as gases. All Halogens have an oxidation number of -1.
  • Noble Gases: All noble gases have an oxidation number of 0 which makes them stable and generally inert. The noble gases are Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon, Radon and possibly Oganesson.

Most of the abbreviations for elements are derived from Latin. For example, the Latin word for gold is “aurum” hence “Au” is the symbol for gold in the periodic table.

ADDucation Tips: Click column headings with arrows to sort chemical elements. Click the + icon to show any hidden columns. Set your browser to full screen and zoom out to show as many columns as possible. The Symbols are color coded by Classification to match the periodic table graphic. Start typing in the Filter table box to find anything inside the table of all chemical elements.

Chemical ElementsSymClassificationState @ 20°C/68FAtomic No:Atomic Weight uMelting Point °CBoiling Point °CDiscoverer/sYear discovered
HydrogenHNon-metalgas11.008-259.1-252.9Henry Cavendish1766
HeliumHeNoble gasgas24.0026-272.2-268.9Ramsay, Crookes, Cleve, Langlet1895
LithiumLiAlkali metalsolid36.941180.51,342Johan August Arfwedson1817
BerylliumBeAlkali earth metalsolid49.0121,2782,970Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin1797
BoronBMetalloidsolid510.8112,3002,550Humphry Davy & J. Gay-Lussac1808
CarbonCNon-metalsolid612.0113,5504,827unknownunknown
NitrogenNNon-metalgas714.007-209,9-195.8Daniel Rutherford, Carl Wilhelm Scheele1771/72
OxygenONon-metalgas815.999-218.4-182.9Carl W Scheele & Joseph Priestley1774
FluorineFHalogengas918.998-219.6-188.1Henri Moissan1886
NeonNeNoble gasgas1020.1797-248.7-246.1William Ramsay & Morris Travers1898
SodiumNaAlkali metalsolid1122.99097.8892Humphry Davy1807
MagnesiumMgAlkali earth metalsolid1224.305648.81,107Humphry Davy1808
Aluminum (US)

Aluminium (UK)

AlOther metalsolid1326.982660.52,467Hans Christian Ørsted1825
SiliconSiMetalloidsolid1428.0861,4102,355Jöns Jakob Berzelius1824
PhosphorusPNon-metalsolid1530.97444280Hennig Brand1669
Sulfur (US)

Sulphur
(UK/international)

SNon-metalsolid1632.066113444.7Unknown (prehistoric)unknown
ChlorineClHalogengas1735.453-101-34.6Carl Wilhelm Scheele1774
ArgonArNoble gasgas1839.948-189.4-185.9William Ramsay1894
PotassiumKAlkali metalsolid1939.09863.7774Humphry Davy1807
CalciumCaAlkali earth metalsolid2040.0788391,487Humphry Davy1808
ScandiumScTransition metalsolid2144.9561,5392,832Lars Fredrik Nilson1879
TitaniumTiTransition metalsolid2247.8671,6603,260William Gregor & Martin Klaproth1791
VanadiumVTransition metalsolid2350.9421,8903,380Andrés Manuel del Rio1801
ChromeCrTransition metalsolid2451.9961,8572,482Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin1797
ManganeseMnTransition metalsolid2554.901.2442,097Johann Gottlieb Gahn1774
Iron (Ferrum)FeTransition metalsolid2655.8451.5352,750Unknown (prehistoric)unknown
CobaltCoTransition metalsolid2758.931.4952,870Georg Brandt1735
NickelNiTransition metalsolid2858.6431.4532,732Axel Frederic Cronstedt1751
Copper (Cuprum)CuTransition metalsolid2963.5461.083,52,595Unknown (prehistoric)unknown
ZincZnTransition metalsolid3065.38419.6907Marggraf1746
GalliumGaOther metalsolid3169.72329.82,403Lecoq de Boisbaudran1875
GermaniumGeMetalloidsolid3272.631937.42,830Clemens Winkler1886
ArsenicAsMetalloidsolid3374.92281613Albertus Magnus1250
SeleniumSeNon-metalsolid3478.972217685Jöns Jakob Berzelius1817
BromineBrHalogenliquid3579.904-7.358,8Antoine-Jérôme Balard1826
KryptonKrNoble gasgas3684.798-156.6-152.3William Ramsay & Morris Travers1898
RubidiumRbAlkali metalsolid3785.46839688Robert Bunsen & Gustav Kirchhoff1861
StrontiumSrAlkali earth metalsolid3887.627691,384Humphry Davy1808
YttriumYTransition metalsolid3988.9061,5233,337Johan Gadolin1794
ZirconiumZrTransition metalsolid4091.2241,8524,377Martin Heinrich Klaproth1789
NiobiumNbTransition metalsolid4192.9062,4684,927Charles Hatchett1801
MolybdenumMoTransition metalsolid4295.952,6175,560Carl Wilhelm Scheele1778
TechnetiumTcTransition metalsolid4398*2,1725,030Emilio Segrè & Carlo Perrier1937
RutheniumRuTransition metalsolid44101.072,3103,900Karl Ernst Claus1844
RhodiumRhTransition metalsolid45102.9061,9663,727William Hyde Wollaston1803
PalladiumPdTransition metalsolid46106.421,5523,140William Hyde Wollaston1803
Silver (Argentum)AgTransition metalsolid47107.868961.92,212Unknown (prehistoric)unknown
CadmiumCdTransition metalsolid48112.411321765Friedr. Stromeyer & Carl Hermann1817
IndiumInOther metalsolid49114.818156.22,080Ferdinand Reich & Theo Richter1863
Tin (Stannum)SnOther metalsolid50118.7112322,270Unknown (prehistoric)unknown
Antimony (Stibium)SbMetalloidsolid51121.760630.71,750Unknown (prehistoric)unknown
TelluriumTeMetalloidsolid52127.60449.6990Franz J. Müller von Reichenstein1782
IodineIHalogensolid53126.904113.5184.4Bernard Courtois1811
XenonXeNoble gasgas54131.294-111.9-107William Ramsay & Morris Travers1898
CesiumCsAlkali metalsolid55132.90528.4690Gustav Kirchhoff & Robert Bunsen1860
BariumBaAlkali earth metalsolid56137.3287251,640Humphry Davy1808
LanthanumLaTransition metalsolid57138.9059203,454Carl Gustav Mosander1839
CeriumCeLanthanidesolid58140.1167983,257von Hisinger, Berzelius, Klaproth1803
PraseodymiumPrLanthanidesolid59140.9089313,212Carl Auer von Welsbach1885
NeodymiumNdLanthanidesolid60144.2421,0103,127Carl Auer von Welsbach1895
PromethiumPmLanthanidesolid61[145]*1,0802,730Marinsky, Glendenin, Coryell1945
SamariumSmLanthanidesolid62150.361,0721,778Lecoq de Boisbaudran1879
EuropiumEuLanthanidesolid63151.9648221,597Eugène-Anatole Demarcay1901
GadoliniumGdLanthanidesolid64157.251,3113,233Jean Charles G. de Marignac1880
TerbiumTbLanthanidesolid65158.9251,3603,041Carl Gustav Mosander1843
DysprosiumDyLanthanidesolid66162.5001,4092,335Lecoq de Boisbaudran1886
HolmiumHoLanthanidesolid67164.9301,4702,720Marc Delafontaine & Jacques Soret1878
ErbiumErLanthanidesolid68167.2591,5222,510Carl Gustav Mosander1843
ThuliumTmLanthanidesolid69168.9341,5451,727Per Teodor Cleve1879
YtterbiumYbLanthanidesolid70173.0458241,193Jean Charles G. de Marignac1878
LutetiumLuLanthanidesolid71174.9671,6563,315von Welsbach, James & Urbain1907
HafniumHfTransition metalsolid72178.492,1505,400Dirk Coster & George de Hevesy1923
TantalumTaTransition metalsolid73180.9482,9965,425Anders Gustaf Ekeberg1802
TungstenWTransition metalsolid74183.843,4075,927Fausto & Juan de Elhuyar1783
RheniumReTransition metalsolid75186.2073,1805,627Noddack, Tacke, Berg1925
OsmiumOsTransition metalsolid76190.233,0455,027Smithson Tennant1803
IridiumIrTransition metalsolid77192.2172,4104,130Smithson Tennant1803
PlatinumPtTransition metalsolid78195.0851,7723,827Julius Caesar Scaliger1557
Gold (Aurum)AuTransition metalsolid79196.9671,064.42,940Unknown (prehistoric)unknown
Mercury (Hydrargyrum)HgTransition metalliquid80200.592-38.9356.6Unknown (prehistoric)unknown
ThalliumTlOther metalsolid81204.383303.61,457William Crookes1861
Lead (Plumbum)PbOther metalsolid82207.20327.51,740Unknown (prehistoric)unknown
BismuthBiOther metalsolid83208.98271.41,560Georgius Agricola1540
PoloniumPoOther metalsolid84[209]*254962Marie and Pierre Curie1898
AstatineAtHalogensolid85[210]*302337Corson, MacKenzie, Emilio Segrè1940
RadonRnNoble gasgas86[222]*-71-61.85Friedrich Ernst Dorn1900
FranciumFrAlkali metalsolid87[223]*27677Marguerite Perey1939
RadiumRaAlkali earth metalsolid88[226]*7001,140Marie and Pierre Curie1898
ActiniumAcTransition metalsolid89[227]*1,0473,197André-Louis Debierne1899
ThoriumThActinidesolid90232.0381,7504,787Jöns Jakob Berzelius1829
ProtactiniumPaActinidesolid91231.0361,5544,030Fajans, Göring, Hahn, Meitner1917
UraniumUActinidesolid92238.0291,132.43,818Martin Heinrich Klaproth1789
NeptuniumNpActinidesolid93[237]*6403,902Edwin McMillan & Philip Abelson1940
PlutoniumPuActinidesolid94[244]*6413,327Seaborg, Kennedy, McMillan, Wahl1940
AmericiumAmActinidesolid95[243]*9942,607Glenn T. Seaborg1944
CuriumCmActinidesolid96[247]*1,3403,110Seaborg, James, Morgan, Ghiorso1944
BerkeliumBkActinidesolid97[247]*986unknownGlenn T. Seaborg1949
CaliforniumCfActinidesolid98[251]*900unknownThompson, Street, Ghiorso, Seaborg.1950
EinsteiniumEsActinidesolid99[252]*860unknownGlenn T. Seaborg1952
FermiumFmActinideunknown100[257]*unknownunknownGlenn T. Seaborg1952
MendeleviumMdActinideunknown101[258]*unknownunknownSeaborg, Ghiorso, Harvey, Choppin1955
NobeliumNoActinideunknown102[259]*unknownunknownSeaborg, Ghiorso, Sikkeland, Walton1958
LawrenciumLrActinideunknown103[262]*unknownunknownGhiorso, Sikkeland, Larsh, Latimer1961
RutherfordiumRfTransition metalunknown104[261]*unknownunknownGeorgi Flerow or Ghiorso (1964/1969)1964 or
1969
DubniumDbTransition metalsolid105[262]*unknownunknownGeorgi Flerow or Ghiorso1967 or
1970
SeaborgiumSgTransition metalsolid106[266]*unknownunknownGeorgi Flerow & Juri Organessian1974
BohriumBhTransition metalsolid107[264]*unknownunknownJuri Zolakowitsch Oganessian1976
HassiumHsTransition metalsolid108[269]*unknownunknownGSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research1984
MeitneriumMtTransition metal†solid109[268]*unknownunknownGSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research1982
DarmstadtiumDsTransition metal†solid110[269]*unknownunknownGSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research1994
RoentgeniumRgTransition metal†solid111[272]*unknownunknownGSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research1994
CoperniciumCnTransition metalsolid112[277]*unknownunknownGSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research1996
NihoniumNhOther metal†unknown113[286]*unknownunknownJINR (Joint Institute Nuclear Research)2004
FleroviumFlOther metal†unknown114[289]*unknownunknownJINR (Joint Institute Nuclear Research)1999
MoscoviumMcOther metal†unknown115[289]*unknownunknownJINR (Joint Institute Nuclear Research)2006
LivermoriumLvOther metal†solid
(predicted)
116[293]*unknownunknownJINR (Joint Institute Nuclear Research)2000
TennessineTsHalogen†unknown117[294]*unknownunknownJINR (Joint Institute Nuclear Research)2010
OganessonOgNoble gas†unknown118[294]*unknownunknownJINR (Joint Institute Nuclear Research)2006
Chemical Element Table Key
  • Chemical Elements: The name of some chemical elements differs by locality. Variations are indicated in the table. Other chemical elements names (e.g. 104 to 109) are disputed by the ACS (American Chemical Society) and the IUPAC (International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry).
  • Symbol (Sym): Abbreviated name for each element consisting of a capital letter followed by one or two lower case letters. Typically derived from its Latin name.
  • Classification: The period table groups of which there are many variations.
    • † Predicted – still under research or disputed.
  • State @ 20°C: Gas, liquid or solid.
  • Atomic number (Atomic No): Set to the number of protons in the nucleus for each atom.
  • Atomic weight u: Weight in unified atomic mass unit (u or Da)): Set to the approximate total of the number of protons and the number of neutrons.
    • [*] Chemical Elements which don’t have any stable nuclides are included in square brackets. The number indicates the mass number of the longest-lived isotope of the element apart from Bismuth, Protactinium, Thorium and Uranium which have characteristic terrestrial isotopic compositions so their standard atomic weights are used.
  • Melting Point °C: Temperature, in degrees Celsius, at which chemical elements changes from a solid to a liquid or vice-versa.
  • Boiling Point °C: Temperature, in degrees Celsius, at which a chemical element changes from a liquid to a gas or vice-versa.
  • Discoverer/s: The first person or team of scientists to identify the chemical element. Some chemical elements were discovered by earlier civilizations so the discoverer is unknown.
  • Year discovered: Year chemical elements were first isolated and identified.

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One response to “Periodic Table of Chemical Elements”

  1. JC says:

    I’ve now created our own ADDucation Periodic Table of Chemical Elements! We needed one to fit across the top of the page – I’ve added it as a PDF and made it free to download and share. If anyone would like a higher resolution version just let me know what size and I’ll email you a copy.

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