chemical elements

Chemical Elements List

118 Chemical Elements List with Names & Symbols

Chemical Elements FAQs

Chemical Elements Frequently Asked Questions

Why do some chemical elements have names which do not match its symbol?
Most of the abbreviations for the 118 chemical elements are derived from Latin. Here’s a list of chemical elements with symbols which do NOT match their names with explanations:

  • Antimony (Sb)
    The symbol Sb for Antimony is taken from Latin stibium, Greek stíbi which means eye paint because antimony was used in eye cosmetics.
  • Copper (Cu)
    The symbol Cu for Copper is taken from Latin Cuprum a contraction of Cyprian metal from Cyprus which was famous for copper.
  • Gold (Au)
    The symbol Au for Gold is taken from Latin aurum (yellow) and from aurora (dawn).
  • Iron (Fe)
    The symbol Fe for Iron is taken from Latin errum which means iron or sword.
  • Lead (Pb)
    The symbol Pb for Lead is taken from Latin plumbum probably derived from an earlier language than Greek.
  • Mercury (Hg)
    The symbol Hg for Mercury is taken from Greek hydrargyros (liquid silver or quicksilver in English) resulting in hydrargyrum. Alchemists believed hydrargyrum was close to gold so named it after the planet closest to the Sun, which is Mercury.
  • Potassium (K)
    The symbol K for Potassium is taken from Latin Kalium.
  • Silver (Ag)
    The symbol Ag for Silver is taken from Latin argentum probably derived from an Indo-European word for shiny metal. Argentina is the only country named after a chemical element.
  • Sodium (Na)
    The symbol Na for Sodium is taken from Latin natrium, Greek nítron and earlier Arabic natrun.
  • Tin (Sn)
    The symbol Sn for Silver is taken from latin stannum probably derived from the Indo-European word stag (dripping) because tin is easily melted.
  • Tungsten (W)
    The symbol W for Tungsten refers to Wolfram the mineral found in wolframite, from the German wolf rahm/wolf’s foam – the amount of tin consumed to extract Tungsten.

ADDucation Tips: Click column headings with arrows to sort chemical elements. Click the + icon to show any hidden columns. Set your browser to full screen and zoom out to show as many columns as possible. The Symbols are color coded by classification to match the periodic table graphic. Start typing in the Filter table box to find anything inside the table of all chemical elements.

Chemical ElementsSymClassificationState @ 20°C/68FAtomic No:Atomic Weight uMelting Point °CBoiling Point °CDiscoverer/sYear discovered
HydrogenHNon-metalgas11.008-259.1-252.9Henry Cavendish.1766
HeliumHeNoble gasgas24.0026-272.2-268.9Ramsay, Crookes, Cleve, Langlet.1895
LithiumLiAlkali metalsolid36.941180.51,342Johan August Arfwedson.1817
BerylliumBeAlkali earth metalsolid49.0121,2782,970Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin.1797
BoronBMetalloidsolid510.8112,3002,550Humphry Davy & J. Gay-Lussac.1808
CarbonCNon-metalsolid612.0113,5504,827Unknown.unknown
NitrogenNNon-metalgas714.007-209,9-195.8Daniel Rutherford, Carl Wilhelm Scheele.1771/72
OxygenONon-metalgas815.999-218.4-182.9Carl W Scheele & Joseph Priestley.1774
FluorineFHalogengas918.998-219.6-188.1Henri Moissan.1886
NeonNeNoble gasgas1020.1797-248.7-246.1William Ramsay & Morris Travers.1898
SodiumNaAlkali metalsolid1122.99097.8892Humphry Davy.1807
MagnesiumMgAlkali earth metalsolid1224.305648.81,107Humphry Davy.1808
Aluminum (US)

Aluminium (UK)

AlOther metalsolid1326.982660.52,467Hans Christian Ørsted.1825
SiliconSiMetalloidsolid1428.0861,4102,355Jöns Jakob Berzelius.1824
PhosphorusPNon-metalsolid1530.97444280Hennig Brand.1669
Sulfur (US)

Sulphur
(UK/international)

SNon-metalsolid1632.066113444.7Unknown (prehistoric).unknown
ChlorineClHalogengas1735.453-101-34.6Carl Wilhelm Scheele.1774
ArgonArNoble gasgas1839.948-189.4-185.9William Ramsay.1894
PotassiumKAlkali metalsolid1939.09863.7774Humphry Davy.1807
CalciumCaAlkali earth metalsolid2040.0788391,487Humphry Davy.1808
ScandiumScTransition metalsolid2144.9561,5392,832Lars Fredrik Nilson.1879
TitaniumTiTransition metalsolid2247.8671,6603,260William Gregor & Martin Klaproth.1791
VanadiumVTransition metalsolid2350.9421,8903,380Andrés Manuel del Rio.1801
ChromeCrTransition metalsolid2451.9961,8572,482Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin.1797
ManganeseMnTransition metalsolid2554.901.2442,097Johann Gottlieb Gahn.1774
Iron (Ferrum)FeTransition metalsolid2655.8451.5352,750Unknown (prehistoric).unknown
CobaltCoTransition metalsolid2758.931.4952,870Georg Brandt.1735
NickelNiTransition metalsolid2858.6431.4532,732Axel Frederic Cronstedt.1751
Copper (Cuprum)CuTransition metalsolid2963.5461.083,52,595Unknown (prehistoric).unknown
ZincZnTransition metalsolid3065.38419.6907Marggraf.1746
GalliumGaOther metalsolid3169.72329.82,403Lecoq de Boisbaudran.1875
GermaniumGeMetalloidsolid3272.631937.42,830Clemens Winkler.1886
ArsenicAsMetalloidsolid3374.92281613Albertus Magnus.1250
SeleniumSeNon-metalsolid3478.972217685Jöns Jakob Berzelius.1817
BromineBrHalogenliquid3579.904-7.358,8Antoine-Jérôme Balard.1826
KryptonKrNoble gasgas3684.798-156.6-152.3William Ramsay & Morris Travers.1898
RubidiumRbAlkali metalsolid3785.46839688Robert Bunsen & Gustav Kirchhoff.1861
StrontiumSrAlkali earth metalsolid3887.627691,384Humphry Davy.1808
YttriumYTransition metalsolid3988.9061,5233,337Johan Gadolin.1794
ZirconiumZrTransition metalsolid4091.2241,8524,377Martin Heinrich Klaproth.1789
NiobiumNbTransition metalsolid4192.9062,4684,927Charles Hatchett.1801
MolybdenumMoTransition metalsolid4295.952,6175,560Carl Wilhelm Scheele.1778
TechnetiumTcTransition metalsolid4398*2,1725,030Emilio Segrè & Carlo Perrier.1937
RutheniumRuTransition metalsolid44101.072,3103,900Karl Ernst Claus.1844
RhodiumRhTransition metalsolid45102.9061,9663,727William Hyde Wollaston.1803
PalladiumPdTransition metalsolid46106.421,5523,140William Hyde Wollaston.1803
Silver (Argentum)AgTransition metalsolid47107.868961.92,212Unknown (prehistoric)unknown
CadmiumCdTransition metalsolid48112.411321765Friedr. Stromeyer & Carl Hermann.1817
IndiumInOther metalsolid49114.818156.22,080Ferdinand Reich & Theo Richter.1863
Tin (Stannum)SnOther metalsolid50118.7112322,270Unknown (prehistoric).unknown
Antimony (Stibium)SbMetalloidsolid51121.760630.71,750Unknown (prehistoric).unknown
TelluriumTeMetalloidsolid52127.60449.6990Franz J. Müller von Reichenstein.1782
IodineIHalogensolid53126.904113.5184.4Bernard Courtois.1811
XenonXeNoble gasgas54131.294-111.9-107William Ramsay & Morris Travers.1898
CesiumCsAlkali metalsolid55132.90528.4690Gustav Kirchhoff & Robert Bunsen.1860
BariumBaAlkali earth metalsolid56137.3287251,640Humphry Davy.1808
LanthanumLaTransition metalsolid57138.9059203,454Carl Gustav Mosander.1839
CeriumCeLanthanidesolid58140.1167983,257von Hisinger, Berzelius, Klaproth.1803
PraseodymiumPrLanthanidesolid59140.9089313,212Carl Auer von Welsbach.1885
NeodymiumNdLanthanidesolid60144.2421,0103,127Carl Auer von Welsbach.1895
PromethiumPmLanthanidesolid61[145]*1,0802,730Marinsky, Glendenin, Coryell.1945
SamariumSmLanthanidesolid62150.361,0721,778Lecoq de Boisbaudran.1879
EuropiumEuLanthanidesolid63151.9648221,597Eugène-Anatole Demarcay.1901
GadoliniumGdLanthanidesolid64157.251,3113,233Jean Charles G. de Marignac.1880
TerbiumTbLanthanidesolid65158.9251,3603,041Carl Gustav Mosander.1843
DysprosiumDyLanthanidesolid66162.5001,4092,335Lecoq de Boisbaudran.1886
HolmiumHoLanthanidesolid67164.9301,4702,720Marc Delafontaine & Jacques Soret.1878
ErbiumErLanthanidesolid68167.2591,5222,510Carl Gustav Mosander.1843
ThuliumTmLanthanidesolid69168.9341,5451,727Per Teodor Cleve.1879
YtterbiumYbLanthanidesolid70173.0458241,193Jean Charles G. de Marignac.1878
LutetiumLuLanthanidesolid71174.9671,6563,315von Welsbach, James & Urbain.1907
HafniumHfTransition metalsolid72178.492,1505,400Dirk Coster & George de Hevesy.1923
TantalumTaTransition metalsolid73180.9482,9965,425Anders Gustaf Ekeberg.1802
TungstenWTransition metalsolid74183.843,4075,927Fausto & Juan de Elhuyar.1783
RheniumReTransition metalsolid75186.2073,1805,627Noddack, Tacke, Berg.1925
OsmiumOsTransition metalsolid76190.233,0455,027Smithson Tennant.1803
IridiumIrTransition metalsolid77192.2172,4104,130Smithson Tennant.1803
PlatinumPtTransition metalsolid78195.0851,7723,827Julius Caesar Scaliger.1557
Gold (Aurum)AuTransition metalsolid79196.9671,064.42,940Unknown (prehistoric).unknown
Mercury (Hydrargyrum)HgTransition metalliquid80200.592-38.9356.6Unknown (prehistoric).unknown
ThalliumTlOther metalsolid81204.383303.61,457William Crookes.1861
Lead (Plumbum)PbOther metalsolid82207.20327.51,740Unknown (prehistoric).unknown
BismuthBiOther metalsolid83208.98271.41,560Georgius Agricola.1540
PoloniumPoOther metalsolid84[209]*254962Marie and Pierre Curie.1898
AstatineAtHalogensolid85[210]*302337Corson, MacKenzie, Emilio Segrè.1940
RadonRnNoble gasgas86[222]*-71-61.85Friedrich Ernst Dorn.1900
FranciumFrAlkali metalsolid87[223]*27677Marguerite Perey.1939
RadiumRaAlkali earth metalsolid88[226]*7001,140Marie and Pierre Curie.1898
ActiniumAcTransition metalsolid89[227]*1,0473,197André-Louis Debierne.1899
ThoriumThActinidesolid90232.0381,7504,787Jöns Jakob Berzelius.1829
ProtactiniumPaActinidesolid91231.0361,5544,030Fajans, Göring, Hahn, Meitner.1917
UraniumUActinidesolid92238.0291,132.43,818Martin Heinrich Klaproth.1789
NeptuniumNpActinidesolid93[237]*6403,902Edwin McMillan & Philip Abelson.1940
PlutoniumPuActinidesolid94[244]*6413,327Seaborg, Kennedy, McMillan, Wahl.1940
AmericiumAmActinidesolid95[243]*9942,607Glenn T. Seaborg.1944
CuriumCmActinidesolid96[247]*1,3403,110Seaborg, James, Morgan, Ghiorso.1944
BerkeliumBkActinidesolid97[247]*986unknownGlenn T. Seaborg.1949
CaliforniumCfActinidesolid98[251]*900unknownThompson, Street, Ghiorso, Seaborg.1950
EinsteiniumEsActinidesolid99[252]*860unknownGlenn T. Seaborg.1952
FermiumFmActinideunknown100[257]*unknownunknownGlenn T. Seaborg.1952
MendeleviumMdActinideunknown101[258]*unknownunknownSeaborg, Ghiorso, Harvey, Choppin.1955
NobeliumNoActinideunknown102[259]*unknownunknownSeaborg, Ghiorso, Sikkeland, Walton.1958
LawrenciumLrActinideunknown103[262]*unknownunknownGhiorso, Sikkeland, Larsh, Latimer.1961
RutherfordiumRfTransition metalunknown104[261]*unknownunknownGeorgi Flerow or Ghiorso (1964/1969).1964 or
1969
DubniumDbTransition metalsolid105[262]*unknownunknownGeorgi Flerow or Ghiorso.1967 or
1970
SeaborgiumSgTransition metalsolid106[266]*unknownunknownGeorgi Flerow & Juri Organessian.1974
BohriumBhTransition metalsolid107[264]*unknownunknownJuri Zolakowitsch Oganessian.1976
HassiumHsTransition metalsolid108[269]*unknownunknownGSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research.1984
MeitneriumMtTransition metal†solid109[268]*unknownunknownGSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research.1982
DarmstadtiumDsTransition metal†solid110[269]*unknownunknownGSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research.1994
RoentgeniumRgTransition metal†solid111[272]*unknownunknownGSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research.1994
CoperniciumCnTransition metalsolid112[277]*unknownunknownGSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research.1996
NihoniumNhOther metal†unknown113[286]*unknownunknownJINR (Joint Institute Nuclear Research).2004
FleroviumFlOther metal†unknown114[289]*unknownunknownJINR (Joint Institute Nuclear Research).1999
MoscoviumMcOther metal†unknown115[289]*unknownunknownJINR (Joint Institute Nuclear Research).2006
LivermoriumLvOther metal†solid
(predicted)
116[293]*unknownunknownJINR (Joint Institute Nuclear Research).2000
TennessineTsHalogen†unknown117[294]*unknownunknownJINR (Joint Institute Nuclear Research).2010
OganessonOgNoble gas†unknown118[294]*unknownunknownJINR (Joint Institute Nuclear Research).2006
Chemical Element Table Key
  • Chemical Elements: The name of some chemical elements differs by locality. Variations are indicated in the table. Other chemical elements names (e.g. 104 to 109) are disputed by the ACS (American Chemical Society) and the IUPAC (International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry).
  • Symbol (Sym): Abbreviated name for each element consisting of a capital letter followed by one or two lower case letters. Typically derived from its Latin name.
  • Classification: The period table groups of which there are many variations.
    • † Predicted – still under research or disputed.
  • State @ 20°C: Gas, liquid or solid.
  • Atomic number (Atomic No): Set to the number of protons in the nucleus for each atom.
  • Atomic weight u: Weight in unified atomic mass unit (u or Da)): Set to the approximate total of the number of protons and the number of neutrons.
    • [*] Chemical Elements which don’t have any stable nuclides are included in square brackets. The number indicates the mass number of the longest-lived isotope of the element apart from Bismuth, Protactinium, Thorium and Uranium which have characteristic terrestrial isotopic compositions so their standard atomic weights are used.
  • Melting Point °C: Temperature, in degrees Celsius, at which chemical elements changes from a solid to a liquid or vice-versa.
  • Boiling Point °C: Temperature, in degrees Celsius, at which a chemical element changes from a liquid to a gas or vice-versa.
  • Discoverer/s: The first person or team of scientists to identify the chemical element. Some chemical elements were discovered by earlier civilizations so the discoverer is unknown.
  • Year discovered: Year chemical elements were first isolated and identified.
Chemical Element Groups & Classifications Explained

You will find chemical elements grouped, spelt and colored differently in various versions of the periodic table but the underlying principle remains the same i.e. chemical elements that share similar properties are organized in columns. The classifications are as follows:

  • Alkali Metals: These metals do not occur freely in nature because they react violently with water. Their usual oxidation state is +1. The 6 akali metals are Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium and Francium.
  • Alkaline Earth Metals: These reactive metals do not occur freely in nature and their usual oxidation state is +2. The 6 alkaline earth metals are Beryllium, Magnesium, Calcium, Strontium, Barium and Radium.
  • Transition Metals: There are 38 elements in total including Iron, Cobalt and Nickel which are the only known elements which produce magnetic fields. The valence electrons (or the electrons they use to combine with other elements) in transition metals are present in more than one shell and for this reason they often exhibit several common oxidation states.
  • Other Metals (aka basic metals, poor metals): These elements are all solid and opaque. All their valence electrons in their outer shell so, unlike transition elements, they don’t exhibit variable oxidation states. The 7 basic metals are: Aluminum, Gallium, Indium, Tin, Thallium, Lead and Bismuth.
  • Rare Earth Elements (aka inner transition metals): 30 rare earth elements divided into the Lanthanide and Actinide series, each containing 15 elements. They are all highly reactive with Halogens.
    • Lanthanides are silvery white metals which all have similar properties to Lanthanum, the first element in the series.
    • Actinides are named after Actinium, the first element in the series. Apart from Uranium and Thorium they are trans-uranium, which means synthetic or man-made, and they are created in nuclear reactors, including Plutonium, which is used in nuclear weapons.
  • Metalloids (aka semi-metals): This group of 7 elements makes up the diagonal border between metals and non-metals and they each have properties from both groups. Metals are generally ductile, malleable and conduct heat and electricity. Under certain conditions Germanium and Silicon can be conductive or non-conductive and it’s this property which makes them so useful in electronic circuitry. The other 5 metalloids are Boron, Arsenic, Antimony, Tellurium and Polonium.
  • Non-Metals: Generally poor conductors, brittle and non-reflective and, at room temperature, can exist as gases (e.g Oxygen) and solids. The 7 non-metals are Hydrogen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, Sulfur and Selenium.
  • Halogens (means salt-former): There are 5 Halogens which, at room temperature, exist in all three states of matter. Iodine and Astatine as solids, Bromine as a liquid and Fluorine and Chlorine as gases. All Halogens have an oxidation number of -1.
  • Noble Gases: All noble gases have an oxidation number of 0 which makes them stable and generally inert. The noble gases are Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon, Radon and possibly Oganesson.

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One response to “Chemical Elements List”

  1. Avatar JC says:

    I’ve now created our own ADDucation Periodic Table of Chemical Elements! We needed one to fit across the top of the page – I’ve added it as a PDF and made it free to download and share. If anyone would like a higher resolution version just let me know what size and I’ll email you a copy.

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