Organs of the Human Body
List of Organs of the Human Body with Functions and Pictures
Sortable table of the largest organs of the human body, where they are located in the human body, what they look like and what they do. For size comparisons we’ve included several human body parts which are not human organs as greyed-out rows in the table.
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|Human Organ||Average weight in kg||Average weight in lbs||Location||Properties||Functions and tasks|
|Skin / Derma||4.5 / 15||9.9 / 33||Over the skeleton around the body||Skin is made up of three layers; the outermost epidermis layer, the Dermis and the subcutaneous tissue. The first figure is the weight of the skin followed by the total weight which includes the subcutaneous tissue and fat deposits. At up to 1.95 square meters (21 sq ft) the skin is the largest of all organs of the human body weighing between 6-10% of body weight. Oil glands stop skin drying out. Skin cells are continuously shedded and replaced. Skin is a versatile organ with an ideal pH value of 5.5.||Responds to external stimuli (touch, heat) and uses sweat to cool the body and raised hairs (goosebumps) to trap heat and warm the body regulating the overall temperature. Protects us from UV radiation and injury by producing thick skin (calluses).|
|Liver||1.4||3.1||Upper right abdominal cavity just beneath the diaphragm||The liver (“Iecur” or “hepar”) is the largest gland in the body with soft smooth surface, left and right lobes and weighs between 1.4-2 kg (3-4.4 lbs). The tissue consists of around 100,000 lobules.||Stores energy reserves (vitamins and carbohydrates), detoxifies and breaks down nutrients, produces vital proteins (clotting factors).|
|Brain||1.3||2.9||Inside the skull||The female “cerebrum” weighs around 1.2 kg (2.8 lbs) compared to 1.4 kg (3 lbs) for males. The brain consumes between 20-25% of our total energy intake. The brain consists of 100 billion neurons (somata) and 100 trillion synapses. The neural pathways are 5.8 km (3.6 miles) long in total. We distinguish between: cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon and trunk.||Processes sensory inputs, coordinates behavior and saves information; cerebrum (perception, thinking, acting), diencephalon (feelings like love, fear, anger etc.), cerebellum (balance while walking, running, dancing etc).|
|Lungs||1.1||2.4||Inside chest rib cage||The “pulmo” typically weighs just over 1kg (2.2 lbs) and has a volume between 5-6 liters (10.5-12.7 US pints) with 400 million alveoli. The (smaller) left lung consists of two lobes, the right one of three lobes.||Gas exchange between air and bloodstream. In other words absorption of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide from the body.|
|Heart||0.325||11.0||Under rib cage between your left and right lungs||The heart (“cor” or “cardia”) is a fist-sized, hollow, muscular human organ weighing between 300-350g (10-12 oz) with four chambers; the right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle and four valves to stop blood flowing backwards. The heart is part of the cardiovascular system along with blood and blood vessels.||Of all organs of the human body the heart is most impressive. At rest it can pump 4.9 liters of blood per minute through our veins. Under duress this can rise to between 20-25 liters of blood per minute.|
|Stomach||0.91||2.0||Left side of the upper abdomen||The stomach is mostly muscular and can contain up to 4 liters, 7 UK pints or 8.5 US pints of food and drink to digest. The total weight of a full stomach could be as much as 5kg or 11 lbs. The stomach is approximately 30cm long and 15cm wide (12″ x 6″).||The stomach receives food from via the esophagus and produces acid and enzymes to digest food which slowly turns it into “chyme” which is moved by the stomach muscles into the small intestine.|
|Kidneys||0.3||0.7||Under rib cage in lower back||Both kidneys (“ren” or “nephros”) weigh about 300 g (10½ oz). Between them the 1.2 million renal corpuscles filter up to 1500 liters (400 US gallons) of blood daily.||Purifies the blood and filters out toxins from the body, controls the water balance of the body, excretion of waste products through urine production.|
|Gallbladder||0.3||0.7||below liver near duodenum||The gallbladder “vesica fellea” is a 6-10 cm (2.3-4″) long pear-shaped hollow human organ up to 4 cm (1½”) in length.||Produces bile, which is needed for (fat) digestion.|
|Diaphragm||0.21||0.47||Separates chest cavity from abdominal cavity.||The diaphragm is the most important respiratory muscle and consists of muscles and tendons. It’s dome-shaped, about 3-5 cm (1¼-2″) thick.||The diaphragm pumps 60-80% of the air breathed in into the lungs through contractions of the bronchi (at rest). The contractions cause the chest to rise and fall. A spasm of the diaphragm often causes hiccups.|
|Spleen||0.17||0.4||Below rib cage on your left side||The spleen is about the size of a fist and weighs between 150 and 200 grams (5-7 oz). It’s located on the abdomen on the left kidney and below the diaphragm.||Produces red and white blood cell pulp helping the immune system fight infections.|
|Pancreas||0.1||0.22||Behind stomach in abdomen||The Pancreas is a wedge shaped organ between 16-20 cm long, 3-4 cm wide and up to 2 cm (3/4″) thick and weighs around 100 grams (3½ oz).||The pancreas is a dual function organ which produces enzymes to digest our stomach contents, separating fats, proteins and carbs. The pancreas also regulates blood sugar by producing two hormones, insulin and glucagon which have opposite effects.|
|Tongue||0.065||0.14||Inside mouth attached to hyoid bone at back of throat||The tongue is a muscular organ, around 10cm (4″) long. The average weight of the male adult tongue is 70g (2½ oz) and 60g (2.1 oz) for females.||The tongue is used for speech, manipulating food and sensing tastes (sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami (found in glutamates).|
|Thyroid||0.035||0.08||Wraps around the front of the windpipe below the Adams apple||The Thyroid gland is one of the largest glands in the body, typically weighing around 35 grams (1.2 oz).||Produces thyroxine and triiodothyronine hormones.|
|Bladder (urinary)||0.042||0.092||Immediately above and behind the pubic bone||The bladder (“vesica urinaria”) holds up to 550 ml (1.2 US pints) of urine (or with some men even up to 750 ml (1.6 US pints) Ureters connect the kidneys to the bladder and transports the purified blood (urine) to the bladder. The average empty human bladder organ weighs 42g (1½ oz).||Stores the urine resulting from the blood purification in the kidneys and removes all toxins (urea, chlorides, sodium, potassium, creatine, bicarbonate, uric acid) from the body through excretion.|
|Prostate||0.02||0.04||Between penis and bladder||Typically weighs around 20 grams (¾ oz).||Secretes prostate fluid that protects and nourishes sperm and, during ejaculation, the muscles of the prostate gland help propel seminal fluid into the urethra.|
|Muscles||35||77||Around the body||There are around 700 named muscles in the human body and hundreds of other unarmed muscles which weigh between 30-40 kg (66-88 pounds). There are three types of muscle tissue skeletal, cardiac and smooth.|
|Skeleton||(8.4)||(18.5)||Under the skin||The “skeletos” in an adult consists of 206-214 bones including 33 vertebrae of the spine. The skeleton accounts for about 12% of body weight. In a 70-kilogram adult, the skeleton weighs about 8.4 kilos. There are also 14-24 separate sesamoid bones embedded within muscles or tendons and 32 teeth. The spine has 24 vertebrae (7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar). Bones consist of 50% water, 15.75% fats, 12.4% cartilage and 21.85% minerals, mostly Calcium.||The skeleton carries and supports the entire body structure. Bones aren’t fixed, rigid structures they are alive and adapt to circumstances, heal fractures and renew constantly. Bones grow until around age 25 and typically degrade around 40 years old.|
|Blood||(4.9)||(10.8)||In blood vessels (arteries, veins, capillaries etc.)||Blood (“Sanguis”) makes up around 7% of body weight. For a human weighing 70kg (154 pounds) that’s around 4.9kg (10.8 pounds) which equates to 5 liters (10.6 US liquid pints or 8.8 imperial pints) of blood. Blood consists of 56% plasma, 44% blood cells (red = erythrocytes, white = leukocytes, platelets (thrombocytes) and 0.1% sugar.||Blood plasma transports nutrients and waste materials; red cells transport oxygen and carbon dioxide, the white cells fight off pathogens, and the platelets are responsible for blood clotting.|
|Intestines||2.0||4.4||Abdominal body cavity||The small and large intestines are about 8 metres (26¼ feet) long and weigh around 2 kg (4½ pounds). The small intestine includes the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. The large intestine (also known as the large bowel) includes the cecum, colon, rectum and anal canal.|
|Blood Vessels||2 circulatory loops around the body||Blood vessels includes arteries, veins and capillaries which, with the heart, forms the circulatory system. The heart pumps blood through the arteries to the capillaries, which oxygenates the cells of the body. The deoxygenated blood then returns to the heart through the veins and the cycle starts again around 1440 times a day. The total length of all blood vessels (“Vas sanguineum”) is around 100,000 km (62,137 miles).|
Because all humans are different the weights of human organs in the table can only be used as a rough guide. Except where stated the table lists average weights based on a 1.8 m (5′ 11″) tall human weighing 70 kg (154 lbs). Taking into account:
- The average male is taller, and weighs more, than the average female.
- Male organs, on average, weigh between 3-5% more than female organs.
You can use this information to make an educated guess at the weight of your organs by adding or taking off a few percentage points depending on your weight and height.
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- Compiled by Joe Connor, last updated August 12, 2019.
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