human organs

Human Organs

List of Internal Human Organs and their Functions with Pictures

Sortable table of the largest human organs, where they are located in the human body, what they look like, and what they do. We’ve also included a few other human body parts, which are not human organs (the greyed-out rows in the table) for size comparison.

Frequently Asked Questions About Internal Human Organs

FAQs About Internal Human Organs

  • What are human organs?
    A human organ is a group of tissues that perform a specific function or set of functions.

  • What are the vital human organs?
    The five human organs vital for survival are:
    • The heart
    • Brain
    • Lungs
    • Liver
    • Kidneys

  • How many human organs are in the human body and what are their functions?
    The consensus is 78-79 human organs depending on the definition of a human organ.

  • What is the largest human organ in the human body?
    The skin is, by far, the largest human organ. The skin of an average adult would cover around 2 square meters (22 square feet), weigh around 9kg (20lbs) and is between 0.5mm (0.02″) thick on the eyelid to 4mm (0.16″).

  • Is there a List of organs of the human body?
    This list of human organs is divided into organ systems and sub systems:
    • Circulatory system:
      • Cardiovascular system
        Human organs which supply oxygen via blood to the human body:
        • Heart
        • Arteries
        • Veins
        • Capillaries
      • Lymphatic system
        Human organs which A secondary circulatory system that helps the body fight pathogens and maintain its fluid balance:
        • Lymphatic vessel
        • Lymph nodes
        • Bone marrow
        • Thymus
        • Spleen
    • Immune system
      Human organs that defend the human body against disease and maintain its fluid balance:
      • Tonsils
      • Leukocytes
      • Thymus
      • Adenoids
      • Spleen
    • Digestive system
      Human organs from the mouth to the anus which digest food, extract nutrients and expel waste:
      • Upper Gastrointestinal Tract (Upper GI):
        • Mouth
          • Tongue
          • Teeth
          • Salivary glands:
            • Parotid glands
            • Sublingual glands
            • Submandibular glands
        • Pharynx
          • Oropharynx
          • Laryngopharynx
        • Esophagus (US) / Oesophagus (UK)
        • Stomach
      • Lower Gastrointestinal Tract (Lower GI):
        • Small intestine / Duodenum
        • Jejunum
        • Ileum
        • Appendix
        • Large intestine / Colon / Large bowel
        • Rectum
        • Anus
      • Accessory organs:
        • Liver
        • Billiary tract
          • Gallbladder
          • Bile ducts
        • Pancreas
    • Musculoskeletal:
      • Skeletal system
        Bones and cartilage that provide the frame for the human body:
        • Bone:
          • Carpus
          • Collar bone / Clavicle)
          • Thigh bone / Femur
          • Fibula
          • Humerus
          • Mandible
          • Metacarpus
          • Metatarsus
          • Ossicles
          • Patella
          • Phalanges
          • Radius
          • Skull / Cranium
          • Tarsus
          • Tibia
          • Ulna
          • Rib
          • Vertebra
          • Pelvis
          • Sternum
        • Cartilage
      • Joints:
        • Cartilaginous joint
        • Fibrous joint
        • Synovial joint
      • Muscular system
        Muscles, ligaments and tendons which protect the body and regulate body temperature:
        • Muscle
        • Tendon
        • Diaphragm
    • Nervous system
      Human organs which form the electrochemical message system for the human body:
      • Central Nervous System
        • Brain
          • Cerebrum
            • Cerebral hemispheres
          • Diencephalon
        • Brainstem
          • Medulla oblongata
          • Midbrain
          • Pons
        • Cerebellum
        • Spinal cord
        • Ventricular system
          • Choroid plexus
      • Peripheral Nervous System
        • Nerves
          • Cranial nerves
          • Ganglia
          • Spinal nerves
          • Enteric nervous system
    • Reproductive system
      Human organs associated with creating offspring:
      • Male reproductive organs:
        • Male external reproductive organs:
          • Scrotum
          • Penis
        • Male internal reproductive organs:
          • Testes
          • Vas deferens
          • Seminal vesicles
          • Prostate
          • Epididymis
      • Female reproductive organs:
        • Female external reproductive organs:
          • Vulva
          • Clitoris
        • Female internal reproductive organs:
          • Vagina
          • Ovaries
          • Fallopian tubes
          • Uterus
        • Placenta
    • Urinary system
      Human organs which remove waste from the blood and help maintain an electrolyte and water balance:
      • Kidneys
      • Ureters
      • Bladder
      • Urethra
    • Respiratory system
      Human organs responsible for breathing:
      • Nasal cavity
      • Pharynx
      • Larynx
      • Trachea
      • Bronchi
      • Lungs
      • Diaphragm
    • Integumentary System
      Human organs which help protect the human body and regulate body temperature:
      • Skin
      • Subcutaneous tissue
      • Breast
        • Mammary gland
    • Endocrine System
      Human organs that secrete hormones into the circulatory system to be delivered to other organs:
      • Pituitary gland
      • Pineal gland
      • Thyroid gland
      • Parathyroid gland
      • Adrenal gland
      • Pancreatic islets / Islets of Langerhans

ADDucation Tips: Click column headings with arrows to sort human organs. Click the + icon to show any hidden columns. Set your browser to full screen to show as many columns as possible. Start typing in the Filter table box to find anything inside the table of all human organs.

Human OrgansAverage weight (kg)Average weight (lbs)LocationProperties of Human OrgansFunctions and tasks
Skin / DermaList of all human organs - skin4.5 / 159.9 / 33Over the skeleton around the bodyThe first figure is the weight of the skin followed by the total weight which includes the subcutaneous tissue and fat deposits. At up to 1.95 square meters (21 sq ft) the skin is the largest of all human organs weighing between 6-10% of body weight. Oil glands stop skin drying out. Skin cells are continuously shedded and replaced. Skin is a versatile organ with an ideal pH value of 5.5.Responds to external stimuli (touch, heat) and uses sweat to cool the body and raised hairs (goosebumps) to trap heat and warm the body regulating the overall temperature. Protects us from UV radiation and injury by producing thick skin (calluses).
LiverList of all human organs - liver1.43.1Upper right abdominal cavity just beneath the diaphragmThe liver (“Iecur” or “hepar”) is the largest gland in the body with soft smooth surface, left and right lobes and weighs between 1.4-2 kg (3-4.4 lbs). The tissue consists of around 100,000 lobules.Stores energy reserves (vitamins and carbohydrates), detoxifies and breaks down nutrients, produces vital proteins (clotting factors).
BrainList of all human organs - brain1.32.9Inside the skullThe female “cerebrum” weighs around 1.2 kg (2.8 lbs) compared to 1.4 kg (3 lbs) for males. The brain consumes between 20-25% of our total energy intake. The brain consists of 100 billion neurons (somata) and 100 trillion synapses. The neural pathways are 5.8 km (3.6 miles) long in total. We distinguish between: cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon and trunk.Processes sensory inputs, coordinates behavior and saves information; cerebrum (perception, thinking, acting), diencephalon (feelings like love, fear, anger etc.), cerebellum (balance while walking, running, dancing etc).
LungsList of all human organs - lungs1.12.4Inside chest rib cageThe “pulmo” typically weighs just over 1kg (2.2 lbs) and has a volume between 5-6 liters (10.5-12.7 US pints) with 400 million alveoli. The (smaller) left lung consists of two lobes, the right one of three lobes.Gas exchange between air and bloodstream. In other words absorption of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide from the body.
HeartList of all human organs - heart0.32511.0Under rib cage between your left and right lungsThe heart (“cor” or “cardia”) is a fist-sized, hollow, muscular human organ weighing between 300-350g (10-12 oz) with four chambers; the right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle and four valves to stop blood flowing backwards. The heart is part of the cardiovascular system along with blood and blood vessels.Of all the human organs the heart is most impressive. At rest it can pump 4.9 liters of blood per minute through our veins. Under duress this can rise to between 20-25 liters of blood per minute.
Stomach List of all human organs - human stomach0.912.0 Left side of the upper abdomenThe stomach is mostly muscular and can contain up to 4 liters, 7 UK pints or 8.5 US pints of food and drink to digest. The total weight of a full stomach could be as much as 5kg or 11 lbs. The stomach is approximately 30cm long and 15cm wide (12″ x 6″).The stomach receives food from via the esophagus and produces acid and enzymes to digest food which slowly turns it into “chyme” which is moved by the stomach muscles into the small intestine.
KidneysList of all human organs - kidneys0.30.7Under rib cage in lower backBoth kidneys (“ren” or “nephros”) weigh about 300 g (10½ oz). Between them the 1.2 million renal corpuscles filter up to 1500 liters (400 US gallons) of blood daily.Purifies the blood and filters out toxins from the body, controls the water balance of the body, excretion of waste products through urine production.
GallbladderList of all human organs - gallbladder0.30.7below liver near duodenumThe gallbladder “vesica fellea” is a 6-10 cm (2.3-4″) long pear-shaped hollow human organ up to 4 cm (1½”) in length.Produces bile, which is needed for (fat) digestion.
DiaphragmList of all human organs - diaphragm0.210.47Separates chest cavity from abdominal cavity.The diaphragm is the most important respiratory muscle and consists of muscles and tendons. It’s dome-shaped, about 3-5 cm (1¼-2″) thick.The diaphragm pumps 60-80% of the air breathed in into the lungs through contractions of the bronchi (at rest). The contractions cause the chest to rise and fall. A spasm of the diaphragm often causes hiccups.
SpleenList of all human organs - spleen0.170.4Below rib cage on your left sideThe spleen is about the size of a fist and weighs between 150 and 200 grams (5-7 oz). It’s located on the abdomen on the left kidney and below the diaphragm.Produces red and white blood cell pulp helping the immune system fight infections.
PancreasList of all human organs - pancreas0.10.22Behind stomach in abdomenThe Pancreas is a wedge shaped organ between 16-20 cm long, 3-4 cm wide and up to 2 cm (3/4″) thick and weighs around 100 grams (3½ oz).The pancreas is a dual function organ which produces enzymes to digest our stomach contents, separating fats, proteins and carbs. The pancreas also regulates blood sugar by producing two hormones, insulin and glucagon which have opposite effects.
TongueList of all human organs - tongue0.0650.14Inside mouth attached to hyoid bone at back of throatThe tongue is a muscular organ, around 10cm (4″) long. The average weight of the male adult tongue is 70g (2½ oz) and 60g (2.1 oz) for females.The tongue is used for speech, manipulating food and sensing tastes (sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami (found in glutamates).
ThyroidList of all human organs - thyroid0.0350.08Wraps around the front of the windpipe below the Adams appleThe Thyroid gland is one of the largest glands in the body, typically weighing around 35 grams (1.2 oz).Produces thyroxine and triiodothyronine hormones.
Bladder (urinary)List of all human organs - bladder0.0420.092Immediately above and behind the pubic boneThe bladder (“vesica urinaria”) holds up to 550 ml (1.2 US pints) of urine (or with some men even up to 750 ml (1.6 US pints) Ureters connect the kidneys to the bladder and transports the purified blood (urine) to the bladder. The average empty human bladder organ weighs 42g (1½ oz).Stores the urine resulting from the blood purification in the kidneys and removes all toxins (urea, chlorides, sodium, potassium, creatine, bicarbonate, uric acid) from the body through excretion.
ProstateList of all human organs - prostate0.020.04Between penis and bladderTypically weighs around 20 grams (¾ oz).Secretes prostate fluid that protects and nourishes sperm and, during ejaculation, the muscles of the prostate gland help propel seminal fluid into the urethra.
MusclesList of all human organs - muscles3577Around the bodyThere are around 700 named muscles in the human body and hundreds of other unarmed muscles which weigh between 30-40 kg (66-88 pounds). There are three types of muscle tissue skeletal, cardiac and smooth.
  • Involuntary muscles work our internal organs and are beyond our control.
  • Voluntary muscles are attached to the skeleton and can be controlled to make the body move.
SkeletonList of all human organs - skeleton(8.4)(18.5)Under the skinThe “skeletos” in an adult consists of 206-214 bones including 33 vertebrae of the spine. The skeleton accounts for about 12% of body weight. In a 70-kilogram adult, the skeleton weighs about 8.4 kilos. There are also 14-24 separate sesamoid bones embedded within muscles or tendons and 32 teeth. The spine has 24 vertebrae (7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar). Bones consist of 50% water, 15.75% fats, 12.4% cartilage and 21.85% minerals, mostly Calcium.The skeleton carries and supports the entire body structure. Bones aren’t fixed, rigid structures they are alive and adapt to circumstances, heal fractures and renew constantly. Bones grow until around age 25 and typically degrade around 40 years old.
BloodList of all human organs - blood(4.9)(10.8)In blood vessels (arteries, veins, capillaries etc.)Blood (“Sanguis”) makes up around 7% of body weight. For a human weighing 70kg (154 pounds) that’s around 4.9kg (10.8 pounds) which equates to 5 liters (10.6 US liquid pints or 8.8 imperial pints) of blood. Blood consists of 56% plasma, 44% blood cells (red = erythrocytes, white = leukocytes, platelets (thrombocytes) and 0.1% sugar.Blood plasma transports nutrients and waste materials; red cells transport oxygen and carbon dioxide, the white cells fight off pathogens, and the platelets are responsible for blood clotting.
IntestinesList of all human organs - intestines2.04.4Abdominal body cavityThe small and large intestines are about 8 metres (26¼ feet) long and weigh around 2 kg (4½ pounds). The small intestine includes the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. The large intestine (also known as the large bowel) includes the cecum, colon, rectum and anal canal.
  • Digestion and absorption of food (protein, carbohydrates, salts, vitamins and fats)
  • Extracts fluids from food pulp
  • Excretion of stools.
Blood VesselsList of all human organs - veins and blood vessels2 circulatory loops around the bodyBlood vessels includes arteries, veins and capillaries which, with the heart, forms the circulatory system. The heart pumps blood through the arteries to the capillaries, which oxygenates the cells of the body. The deoxygenated blood then returns to the heart through the veins and the cycle starts again around 1440 times a day. The total length of all blood vessels (“Vas sanguineum”) is around 100,000 km (62,137 miles).
  • Transports oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the cells and carbon dioxide-rich blood back to the heart.
  • Transports nutrients from digestion into the tissues.
  • Transports waste products to the excretory organs (kidney and intestines).

ADDucation Human Organs Table Notes: Because all humans are different the weights of human organs in the table can only be used as a rough guide. Except where stated the table lists average weights based on a 1.8 m (5′ 11″) tall human weighing 70 kg (154 lbs). Taking into account:

  • The average male is taller, and weighs more, than the average female.
  • Male organs, on average, weigh between 3-5% more than female organs.

You can use this information to make an educated guess at the weight of your organs by adding or taking off a few percentage points depending on your weight and height.

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Related ADDucation Human Organs Lists:

11 responses to “Human Organs”

  1. tai says:

    good stuff to learn

  2. JC says:

    Thanks for pointing out the inaccuracy, which we have now corrected. We do fact-check all our lists but with over 200 lists it’s a never ending task. The human organs list has now been checked by a retired senior medical consultant.

  3. G Muir says:

    The prostate does not excrete urine. It is wonderful to have all these tables but you must have them fact checked by experts (in this case, a nurse, an MD).

  4. JC says:

    Hi Louis, we don’t generally include reference lists on ADDucation. Is there a specific fact you’d like checked?

  5. Louis says:

    Hello, is there a list of references? Thank you!

  6. JC says:

    Hi Sunny, thanks for getting in touch. We’ve now added some extra information about the weights of human organs in between the two tables, we hope that helps.

  7. Sunny says:

    Does the weight of each organ mentioned here corresponds to male OR female ones OR is it the average between the two sexes? You give some detail on that only for the brain.

  8. T.Elijah Fomba Jr. says:

    This was so helpful to my local study.

  9. M says:

    Hello Taki Ali! The weights published on are averages. These averages take into account variables including the size (height and weight) of the person, genetics, damaged organs and so on. Consider the weights in the table a “rough guide” to the relative size of human organs rather than definitive weights.

  10. Joe says:

    In general or one specific organ? Please give us an example and we’ll follow up. The page was a translation from our German sister site.

  11. Taki Ali says:

    The weights of the body organs which are given in these tables are quite different from those given by other references . Why?

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